Q1- (i)- Thermoregulation can be defined as a self-regulatory mechanism of the body which is used mainly to alter or balance the overall body temperature. This regulation is to be done in sync with the environmental temperature (D’Souza 2019, pp. 1383-1386). It is usually observed that along with the aging process the body temperature might not alter that well and gets difficult to be regulated on own. As the age of the person progresses it becomes difficult to maintain one’s own body temperature. The body might take a little longer than anticipated to get back to its normal temperature, as compared to young individuals. The body makes use of few voluntary and few involuntary mechanisms to regulate the body temperature. With progressing age, the involuntary mechanisms play a vital role in thermoregulation process (Stanhewicz 2016, pp. 1354-1362). These involuntary techniques can be observed as shivering and peripheral vasodilation. The general tendency of the body to not able to control the body temperature, usually deteriorates after the age of 50 years and above.
With the advancing age the blood vessels of the body tend to dilate more rapidly as compared to getting constricted. Due to this underlying factor the blood circulation is usually receded in older individuals. Body fat also plays a crucial role in temperature regulation or thermoregulation (Waldock 2018, pp. 163-170).The body fat deposition reduces as the person starts to age. With the reduced layering in the skin, the body finds it quite difficult to keep itself warm and thus, reduced thermoregulation can be observed in elderlies.
(ii)- There are vastly three mechanisms with which Katherine can attain thermoregulation of her body. These mechanisms can be observed as follow:
Q2- (i)- Fracture can be considered as the disintegration of bone cortex that subject a bone to the incidence of fracture. Along with the bone the surrounding musculature is also affected with the impact of fracture (Meinberg 2019, pp. 62-65). The healing process of fracture is divided into four different stages as follow:
With the advancing age this process can be delayed and healing process can also be hampered from attaining the required standards as desired.
(ii)- There are underlying three factors that might have resulted in Katherine getting an easy fracture by falling off a chair:
Q3- (i)- The bile produced in the body can have two main functions as mentioned below:
(ii)- Liver is responsible for metabolizing various metabolites. This function can however, be reduced as the age will increase. There are certain drugs that might hamper with eth normal functioning of the systems as well. Liver and other body parts might not be able to bear the additional stress of the medications and other metabolites, and thus, directly affecting the production of bile in the body. Reduced bile production will be directly reflected in reduced digestion, absorption and excretion of products out of the body. As the toxins will not be washed out of the body, the body might experience ailments like development of gall stones, drug-induced cholestasis and so on. With severe toxicity in the body the threat can be life- serving in extreme cases as well.
Q4- Vitamin D deficiency is very commonly observed in elder population. This is more commonly observed in patients above the age of 50 year and plus. This deficiency is often observed more in females than in males. Osteoporosis and vitamin D deficiency go hand in hand in elderly population. The level of vitamin D also decreases as the age progresses. Inclusion of an additional source or supplement of vitamin D in diet can be helpful for these patients in compensating the loss that may occur due to age related changes (Kotlarczyk 2017, pp. 1347-1353). There are multiple underlying factors that may lead to depreciation of vitamin D in elders. These factors can be development of osteoporosis, low calcium in blood as well as in bones, reduced exposure to natural sunlight. The last-mentioned factor can be considered the main cause for development of vitamin D deficiency in the given case scenario. These reduced levels can be replenished with the help of nutritional supplements that are rich in vitamin D value. This can be inclusive of milk and milk products such as cheese, curd etc.
Taking additional and external intake of calcium is also required in the given case scenario. Calcium intake is important for both bone and muscle strength of the patient in the given case scenario. Additional intake of calcium will be helpful in maintaining overall bone strength and improving their stress and endurance for sustaining additional stresses and strains. This intake of calcium in diet is also important for promoting bone strength and keeping them less prone to fracture as anticipated. It is also vital in promoting bone mineralization process and thus, promotes bone healing once it gets fractured. With the lack of production of calcium within the body, it becomes imperative to take external dosage of calcium as a supplement to suffice for the deficiency (Malihi 2019, pp. 29-37). Katherine is also prone to the risk of osteoporosis and thus, she had fracture with a minute movement. Additional source of calcium will help in reducing this added risk of developing fracture and helps with promoting muscle contractibility as well. Thus, it is also helpful in promoting overall balance and coordination of the body and reducing the risk of fall all together.
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