Stimulate Project Life Cycle
Life Cycle Management
Methodologies of Communication
Problem recognition techniques
Type of communications
Learning from the BIM-enabled project
Here is an assessment of the most popular modern technique i.e. BIM in the construction field. As the description of BIM, it can be said that it is the most flexible method in the modern construction methodologies that direct the experts related with this field to a new path that goes towards the perfection and development along with. Mainly BIM is a 3D model that allows the engineers in various fields such as civil, electrical, mechanical, builders, planners, plumbers and all to work with more efficiency to serve the customer in a better way. BIM helps to stay updated with new data which can be used to build a new structure better than the past every time (Devakumar., 2016)
Fig-1 BIM Modeling
The day by day advancement in modern life, technology, and lifestyle, the expectations of humans for the better living standard are also increasing. The demand for a sustainable home or building is of utmost priority. Along with sustainability, the modern building should have some certain criteria such as friendly management, durable and pleasant aesthetic of course. In many cases, it has experienced by several experts that a minor issue at the initial stage of a major project that was ignored at that time by mistake, cause a massive failure in fulfilling the objective of the project. Here the role of BIM has proved as very important. BIM is a system 3D modeling that can help experts from different disciplines related to the construction to examine their work with more accuracy that helps in identifying the mistakes or holes. The issues whether minor or major can occur in any stage of a project like the managerial stage, execution stage along the planning stage. Here a term occurs that is very relevant to the topic is knowledge management. Knowledge management is described as the procedure to grasp, store, create, share, circulate, and accumulate, and finally their execution over a present problem or issue. The cycle of BIM knowledge management can help in this to meet the objectives.
Here in the following figure-2, a diagram of a BIM cycle has shown. The aspects of BIM are very large, along with the 3D modeling BIM introduce 4D, 5D, 6D, and 7D modeling systems with the industry. Every part has its specification like, 3D deals with clash detection, 4D deals with scheduling by BIM, 5D helps in cost estimation, 6D gives sustainability knowledge and that of 7D is faculty management (Morton et al, ., 2016). BIM repository is very helpful for all users; a repository can be adopted as a cloud-based system or can be work with software. Necessary information about the construction of various software can be chained and then release them on the online platforms through cloud repository. Anyone can get easy access to the information and used them at any level of construction of a building project as per the need. There is another advantage of BIM cloud repository is that it updates the data by the time which helps in building the structure more accepting. The most important motive is to provide a sustainable structure to the customer and BIM helps every efficiently to achieve this.
Fig-2 BIM Knowledge Cycle
BIM Role in Planning Stage- At the very initial stage of planning, there are several survey procedures such as reconnaissance, preliminary, and then master plan. In regularity services, it contains environmental, social, economical security, and energy services. These data will be useful in the future. The principle of urban design is based on the regulatory framework that gives flexibility in designing a city in a shape. The information about the surrounding of a proposed area is very essential in the initial stage and BIM helps in this by its 3D to 7D modeling systems.
BIM Role IN designing- All the information gets from the BIM repository governs the next procedure of the design. Some key points are to be kept in the mind while designing such as all the detailing provided to make the structure sustainable, safe, easy to maintain, secure, durable, livable, and of course have a pleasant aesthetic. At this stage sharing ideas and information is very necessary. With the help of BIM and new ideas, experiences, and knowledge sharing a collaborative building is established as desirable.
The term 'Modeling' is a representation of the static structure of a system and 'Simulation' dynamically explains the system characteristics. Modeling and simulation (M&S) can get combined in different forms and their application area is also vast for various types of problems. M&S confirms the prosperity in modern construction intending to fulfill modern needs and expectations creating a benchmark construction. With the rapid increase in the technologies, the quality and standards of living are also increasing (Jeong, Chang., 2016 et al).
Life Cycle Management
This is the angle of management introduced to manage the total life cycle of materials and their services. Life cycle management (LCM) was included in the management construction area to increase the whole life span of the project reducing cost time and risks and also to serve the society with much effectiveness. All the information on a structure related to its construction is noticed very carefully and takes them as a tool for improvement. All over the main motive is to build a good communication system to use the construction information as a key element ensuring the project's success. If there is any negligence in collecting and sharing information, this can lead the whole project toward failure. Hence to increase the management efficiency BIM has adopted to direct the whole process to the right way by using multidimensional modeling systems at various stages of construction. It helps to build a good information management structure throughout the whole building life cycle allowing examining the structure in a real-life platform. A large number of researches has been conducted on LCM but the main target of most researches was to provide a sustainable, environment-friendly, economic, and quality structure to the owner. A study report says that the implementation of BIM in a project changes the steps in life cycle management. Depending on this study a BIM-enabled life cycle framework is made to investigate the systems (Liu et al., 2016)
Figure-3 Application of BIM in life cycle management
Another important outcome of M&S is simulation. Simulation explains a system by describing its dynamic aspects. Here are some points relevant to this process:
Decision making- decision-making ability describes the prediction or intuition from the experience that helps to analyze the static or dynamic characteristics and find their options, evaluations of models, planning, experimenting, gathering, and proof of the theory.
Education- Capability of learning of the dynamic perspectives.
Understanding- Analysis of several systems and identify their issues and correct them to reach the expected level.
Training- Enhance essential key skills by gathering knowledge with the help of virtual simulations, to enhance decision-making skills or communication abilities with the help of constructive simulations and to enhance managerial skills with the help of live simulations. (Jeong, Chang., 2016 et al)
A major misfortune can make by the deficit in the planning or management level for any type of procedure or system. So it is very necessary to recognize the problems, examination, and their resolution. The techniques that can be functional to the cited grounds so that we acquire the ideal outcome in an organized and precise tactic are described below.
Problem recognition techniques
At the point, when one comes to realize that there is or are problems/problems, the instincts instantly take action to catch their solutions. Their solution will likewise come as exact in the constructional field if the complications are recognized in a methodical fashion that gives us the most ideal result. Here are the steps:
Authenticity check- At first we should take a break and reconsideration make about the presence of the problem after we come to know that there is or are problems/problems. Then we should scrutinize if it is an actual problem or just a perception. At that point attempt to find its description. Is it enough meaningful words that you find or points to designate it? Then consider its earnestness. If the problem is so important that we have to solve fast or it is negligible that could be solved later without disturbing the further work. Then take consideration of related difficulties which have experienced before or not. At last, think about if you can find its solution yourself or you need the help of others, then decide its resolution process. Then the solution procedure should be finalized.
Problem identification- Think and Find the problem is detrimental for what or for whom in your organization. These problems badly affect the entire organization, the employee, or the project. Then you should find the indicators of the problem without disturbing the certain structure. Now find the substitute resolution along with that. Then the problem should be properly described.
Investigation- How the problems repeated should be analyzed. This is done to judge the problem's impact and also about the usefulness of the solution. The symptoms of the problem should be figured out. This can be a stream graph in which the issue emerges or it tends to be a reason. Now you should try to find the harshness of the problem. Its solution should be planned according to its influence. There is a current technique to find out the solution i.e. 5W=1H. Using this exemplary, ask the purpose, 'W' five times and acquire the answer i.e. how to crack this in the first. Now continuously prepared an elective arrangement. Make sure that the solution should be simple enough that might not affect the scheme. At last, discuss with one another expert for an alternative point of view (Cajade Sánchez and Solar Serrano, 2019).
Type of communications
The most common two types of communication methods are verbal and nonverbal. Style or attitude of speaking or writing with confidence comes under verbal communication. And the nonverbal communication defines the gesture, body language, physical presentation, expressions likewise. The ability of effective communication is an important criterion for corporate world employees. Here are the two most common types of communication processes are described below:
Oral Communication- The way of speaking effectively is called oral communication. Good communication skill leads a person toward a good manger. To be a good communicator one should be a good listener at first. An active listener should have some qualities within they are as the ability to make eye contact, collect all important topics of the speaker and note them, ask relevant questions to understand the speaker's mindset, make a proper schedule of meeting for avoiding interruption. These qualities help to judge the speaker. Along with these avoid doing awkward gestures that can disturb the communication progress.
Written Communication- Written communication is as important as oral communication. Written communication has two advantages over oral communication. It allows having evidence of communication and also it is time-saving. But it has disadvantages also such as, the mindset of the reader cannot be known earlier until the reply comes. Written communication language should always be so simple to understand for all. The communication paragraph should not be too long otherwise it could change the perception of the reader. There is a thumb rule to write an effective communication paper and it is the P.O.W.E.R technique that explains the writing procedure as plan, organize, write, edit, and revise. Always write a title of the passage which can describe the objective in one sentence. And at the last left a conclusion for the reader that can lead him/her to next step (Bovée, Thill et al., 2016 )
Problems can arise at any stage in any work. But the employee especially the managerial employees should have good problem-solving eligibility so that any problem cannot affect the work progress or outcomes. Problems are eliminated in such a way that they will not occur again in the future work of that particular project. Following problems within an organization can be solved effectively and they are such as (Baker, 2016)
Fig-4 Problem Solving Circle
Define the problem- Analyze the problem carefully looking into all detailed angles. Try to find the reason for the occurrence of a particular problem. Identify its symptoms to predict its future impact on the work of the project. Diagnose all possible ways of its occurrence and go through a self-questioning session like, who? By how? Using what? This can help in better analyzing and sometimes gives the solution.
Make alternatives- Go through the solution procedure only after having several alternatives. One plan that made first may not be the appropriate one to solve the problem or it cannot solve the problem. Hence, make several alternatives.
Select an alternative- Analyze every option and then select the best result giving option as per intuition or discuss with superiors to take the second opinion. The alternative selected should not affect the project progress. It should be acceptable for all individuals within the problem-solving team and of course, the solution should not beyond the organization's eligibility.
Execute and go through- After considering all detailed parts, go through the solution procedure. Work in a team always gives the best result. It reduces the failure risk as different capabilities and knowledge of different persons combined and works singly. Always establish a feedback system for better monitoring and operating of the procedure. This can also reduce the future occurrence of the same problem.
If BIM is introduced in a project, the final building comes out as an example of the best construction. Not only in the architectural or services, but BIM also gives the flexibility to save construction time, save money of the owner, and give a good structure fulfilling all expectations of the owner. BIM helps in eliminating all minor faults that can cause a major structural or managerial accident. BIM-enabled structures are free from eccentric castings problems. All the parts of the structure are well set in their perfect positions. Thus, geometric accuracy is the main advantage of BIM-enabled projects which gives a huge advantage over structure failure. Some of the major positive options of BIM-enabled structure are as follows:
As all the work procedures are well defined, hence it will save time with effective work. Every project demands short and accurate procedures that can lead it with ease and BIM gives the option to achieve this. At every stage of construction, the necessary data can be learned or shared through BIM repository which raises the project quality.
BIM-enabled structures have more aesthetic and attractive designs compare to those structures which did not include BIM in their construction procedure. Not only the building parts but BIM also give more perfection and beauty in the plumbing, electrical works, placing mechanical equipment and all. BIM always left easy opportunities for future maintenance or repair works without affecting the structure.
BIM reduces the frequent maintenance cost, repairing cost and thus the total service period cost will get minimized. The serviceability or future performance of the structure against time, weathering agencies, natural calamities will be predicted more accurately because of BIM.
If BIM included in any project from the very beginning, then it can also help in the manufacturing level works and the assembling processes. Thus the problems or faults are getting eliminated from the very initial stages of any construction and it goes to perfection.
All the constructional data can be saved in the repository cloud and can be used as a base in the future structures. This increases the standard of services by the time (Zou, Wang et al., 2016)
BIM is a new trend in the modern construction field. Many big projects are adopting BIM. Here are a few examples of BIM-enabled projects and their positive outcomes (Yoon, Kim, 2016 et al)
The Clichy-Batignolles, Paris
The total area of this project was 54 hectares; its objective was to give 8000 residents a modern living place and a workplace to more than 12000 people. It is situated in the 17th district of the city toward the North West direction. Sustainable city Grand Prize was allocated to the project in the International Green City Solution Awards.
A lively area of London's West End, Fitzrovia
The construction company for the project was great Portland Estates. They adopt BIM from the very first stage of their project and the idea allowed them to set a benchmark. Rathbone Square is situated in the heart of London and it contains offices, residential apartments, retail outlets with green surroundings.
Manchester Town Hall Complex
The main objective of the constructor director of the project was to finish the project within less time and make it more economic and also all this in an efficient way. BIM helped a lot in this project to meet the objective. The project started in the year 2010 and gets completed within just 4 years. BIM also saves the data for future extension of the town hall and the main library.
Moreover, it has gained knowledge from the above descriptions about all the aspects of BIM. Including BIM in major projects, the structure can be built with more efficiency. The structure appears to have the most modern facilities, more strength, sustainability, durability, security. Adopting BIM in a project both the customer and the corporation get the benefit. BIM has a large storage of updated data, which allows in the day by day development. However, BIM is the most favorite and adoptable option of modern construction.
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Zou, B., Wang, J. and Wen, F., 2017. Optimal investment strategies for distributed generation in distribution networks with real option analysis. IET Generation, Transmission & Distribution, 11(3), pp.804-813.
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