TOC o 1-3 h z u Introduction PAGEREF _Toc5100769 h 3Indigenous policy Landscape PAGEREF _Toc5100770 h 4Bilingual Policy in Northern Australia A Brief History PAGEREF _Toc5100771 h 5The Current Status of Bilingual Education in Northern Territory PAGEREF _Toc5100772 h 6The Language Act PAGEREF _Toc5100773 h 9Indigenous Primary Health Care (PHC) Policy PAGEREF _Toc5100774 h 9Involvement of Media for Development of the Future of Bilingual Education and Indigenous Primary healthcare Policy PAGEREF _Toc5100775 h 13Conclusion PAGEREF _Toc5100776 h 15
Introduction Public policies are referred to the various rules, regulation, and guidelines that are formulated by the government in order to resolve the problems that have a greater impact in the society or among the general public. The concept of policy analysis involves evaluation of the issues that have greater public importance and have the objective of providing various facts and figures related to the policies developed by the government (Birkland, 2015). Moreover, the primary objective of public policy analysis is to review the degree to which the policy is able to gain their goals. In order to analyse any public policy, the author requires applying various theories related to social science that is relevant to the specific aspect and are of public importance. The public policy analysis involves identification of the problem, determination of the evaluation criteria, identification of the alternative policy, evaluation of the alternative policy and selection of the adequate policy (Colebatch, 2017). Additionally, the application of critical thinking and adequate decision making is the core part of public policy analysis. Since the 1990s the range and the data of the Indigenous population presented for the policy-makers have grown significantly. The collection of these data now requires the evaluation of the progress on every aspect of Closing the gap agenda with the application of a comprehensive and integrated reporting framework model. On the other hand, the indigenous policy advocates play a vital role in upholding the ongoing debates related to any policy applied by the government in case of a distinct population (Labont, 2018).
The policy advocacy also involves various issues like the importance of bilingual education programs, the involvement of the community members, or delivering of the healthcare services among the specific population. For fulfilling the idea applicable to this study, the author will describe a brief overview of the bilingual education system and Indigenous primary healthcare policy (Considine, Nguyen, amp OSullivan, 2018). The study will also describe the outcome of the bilingual policy that was developed by Spolsky that described various aspects of this policy in relation to linguistic and non-linguistic factors. Further, the study will describe the second policy related to the identification of the priorities for Aboriginal Primary Health Care in Northern Territory. This aspect will also analyse the Indigenous health gap existing in Northern Territory in Australia and the root cause of development of such gap. Further, the governments measures for closing the gap will be briefly discussed for the reduction of the health disparity among the Aboriginal population.
Indigenous policy LandscapeIndigenous affairs in the policy are among the most interactive aspect of the policy field. Moreover, the greater conflict exists in terms of fierce policy battles that hold an ideological position between the politicians and the policy advocates. The indigenous people in Northern territory also have reported their relationships to be seriously problematic with the government. Such types of issues have greatly affected the lives of the people, child safety, accessing of the present services, the prevalence of chronic healthcare problems, and so on. Moreover, the indigenous populations are often excluded while participating in the discussion sessions (Fogarty, Riddle, Lovell, amp Wilson, 2017). Many times the policy analyst also present biased report related to the policy analysis in respect of the indigenous population. Simultaneously, the social media and the alternative news aspect play a crucial role in holding the government for facilitating adequate facilities to the Aboriginal population. An intense form of the media reporting also has affected to the government to focus on the major issues prevailing in the society. although multiple number of the measures are taken by the media for upholding the public issue yet changing the policies are not a simple task that could be addressed. Thus, the Aboriginals affairs that take accounts of various policy aspects can be referred to as bureaucratic process since the time of the colonization to the modern time. Moreover, the factor is inherently adapted by the political as well as partisan ideologies existing among the Australian society (Robinson amp Raven, 2017).
Bilingual Policy in Northern Australia A Brief HistoryThe bilingual learning process is referred to the mode of teaching a similar topic in dual languages in schools, library, early years of the education, and so on. This form of education includes educating the Aboriginal children in their native language as well as in English. The researchers have reported that mastering in the first language enables the individuals to learn the other language efficiently. Moreover, a strong link is shared between the recognition and learning processes in terms of the academic aspect in both the languages. The bilingual abilities also provide opportunities to turn bi-cultural in future. In 1962, Kim Beazley, politician, recognized the various positive aspects of the bilingual education on his observation of children learning in two languages, Arrernte and English (Devlin, Disbray, amp Devlin, 2017). This gave him inspiration for introducing this system in real all over the territory.
Finally, in 1972, Minister Gough Whitlam, former Prime Minister, introduced the bilingual system in the schools in Australia. By the end of 1988, 24 schools established in the remote area had the provision of learning in 19 Aboriginal languages (Osborne et al., 2019). This also enhanced the involvement of the local people in the education of children. However, by the end of 2009, only 9 out of the 60 remote schools provided bilingual classes that provided opportunities to Aboriginal children for learning. This approach also helped the Aboriginals to gain a strong Aboriginal identity. In January 2009, the Northern Territory government passed the rule that all the schools in the territory would provide education in the English language, this lead to putting end to more than the 30 years approach of introducing the bilingual program in the territory. One of the major consequences of scrapping the provision of the bilingual program led to a drop in 30 attendance in the schools of Northern Territory. In response to this change in policy, various authors criticised the decision of the government. Thelma Gretz of Catholic Education Office, Townville responded that For most Indigenous children, standard Australian English is an additional language, which presents a real challenge in the everyday classroom(Gray, 2018).
The Current Status of Bilingual Education in Northern TerritoryThe implication of the bilingual policy in Australia has experiences of tremendous failure as well as success. Thus, in order to analyse the policy aspect, one needs to focus on other areas like management of language, ideology, practices, ecological context, and other domains that involve in policy-making context. Moreover, taking account of various demographic similarities and diversifications related to Aboriginal languages and their speakers present in every country helps in explaining the ecological relationship with the development and implementation of certain policies. Gradually, the relationship between the status of the people and corpus planning between the practices of the language, ideologies, workplace, governance, and so on plays an important role (Street et al., 2017).
The Northern Territory is characterized among highly diverse linguistic area. The countries in this area are considered as the home of various endangered languages globally. However, the actual makeup and the geographical spread of the Aboriginal languages and the speakers are highly variable depending on the region to region. Moreover, the demographical differences are a crucial part of the environment variables that are responsible for influencing the difference in language policies. Among the 250 languages spoken by the Indigenous population globally, 150 of them are reported to have their home in Australia. According to the study performed by the Australian Institute of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Studies (AIATSIS), Pitjantjatjara and Warlpiri are the most spoken languages in Australia. The numbers of the indigenous language speaker already hold the disadvantaged position in Australia in terms of ethnolinguistic vitality (Lo Bianco amp Slaughter, 2017). Thus, they also face minimum involvement and importance among the policymakers. Moreover, the study also showed that less than 0.3 of the Australian populations are reported to speaker their regional language at home. However, on taking a closer look at this data, it is found that 68 of the Northern Territorys Aboriginals speaks their local dialect. Moreover, considering the whole population of Northern Australia, the average numbers of people speaking regional languages are quite high. The consideration of fact that the presence of high concentration of the Aboriginal population at this part of the area encourages supporting the idea of the bilingual education system (McKay, 2017).
Due to the high range of the language difference, there are vast differences existing among the rural and urban community. The data shows that approximately 79 of the Indigenous populations are residing in non-remote areas among which 35 of the population resides in major cities. Specifically, one among the four people resides in the remote area of the Northern Territory that accounts for a total of 79 of the locales residing in remote areas. The remoteness in the areas highly affects the availability of the tutor in the schools established in this area. This was the primary reason for the apparent failure of the bilingual policy in 2008. The one most important cause of the failure of the policy in the region was the unavailability of the bilingual educator due to the disadvantage associated with the rurality (Gale, 2017). Another aspect, of the language policy, is that it dependents on the level of the legitimation and institutionalisation. Both of these concepts are distinct but share co-relation in explaining each other. The first aspects of legitimation are referred to the official recognition of any language, whereas the second concepts of instutionalisation are referred to the use of minority of the language in the wide range. Thus, the combinations of both of these concepts would be beneficial for the development of written resources and the bilingual program to be delivered in this language. Moreover, this would be an effective approach in the context of Northern Territory where the process is readily lacking.
Another important aspect of policy development is legal status. The legal status of the language does not guarantee any social status of the speakers. One of the major reasons behind the rejection of the Aboriginal languages in the educational purpose is its less economic values. One of the important facts is that the speakers of the dominant language in the region tend to be more valuable in revenue generation of any region (Smith, Crawford, amp Signal, 2016). On the other hand, the speakers of the minority language often experience a wage range disadvantage. In Australia, languages management aspect has been always discriminated against the use of indigenous policy, languages, practices, and so on. Thus the speakers learning the dominant language always hold the economic values in their respective area. Thus in order to promote the economic value of the indigenous language, the policymakers must introduce these languages in aspects of employability and opportunities for promotion of job. In Australia, there is no existing legislation that recognizes the official language of the nation. Moreover, English is the dominant languages that are spoken among 98 of the Australian population (Head amp OFlynn, 2015). Thus this is declared that English is generally suitable for the official use.
The Federal Parliament acknowledges that although there is no specific rule set down by standing order, the house follows the practice of requiring members speeches to be in English. This acknowledgement was addressed when Northern Territory MP Bess Price called for use of Warlpiri (Indigenous language) for giving her speech in the parliament. However, her request was denied by the other officers. Therefore, this picture clears that there is no backing up policy for the use of Indigenous language in Australia. It is unlikely that the use of Indigenous language would be institutionalized in the public sector. However, few recent incidences are responsible for addressing the issues of Indigenous language into the public discussion. This could be also considered as the emerging possibility in the change in the policy. Prime Minister Malcolm Turnbull in February 2016 opened the Closing the Gap address by addressing the country in Ngunawal language (Indigenous language). Recently, an annual parliamentary dinner of Minerals Council of Australia, Australias national anthem was translated into Ngunawal language. Thus this incidence supported tangible change adapted during the new legislation introduced in NSW parliament in 11th October 2017 (Fogarty et al., 2017).
The Language ActThe NSW Aboriginal Languages Act 2017finally became law on 24th October 2017 and received recognition as the first legislation in Australia in significance to the acknowledgment of the first language. This act promotes, nurture, re-introduces, and grows the use of of Aboriginal language in New South Wales. This also strengthened the connections with culture and identity that resulted in improving the wellbeing of the First people. The act was diversified in three specific parts. The first part involves A preamble, this acknowledges the importance of the use of Indigenous languages and the importance of promotion, nurturing, re-introducing, and growth of the language. The second part involves the development of Aboriginal Language Trust for local language activities. The third aspect involved 5-year Strategic Plan for guiding investment and activities for the purpose of language revival (NSW Government, n.d.).
Indigenous Primary Health Care (PHC) PolicyThe healthcare reports have presented a tremendous level of the health gain in the last three decades in Australia (ABS, 2013). The progression of the PHC in past decades has been possible due to increased level of the Commonwealth funding by Government, implementation of the strategic leadership of the Northern Territory Aboriginal Health Forum (NTAHF), innovation and the leadership of the indigenous controlled healthcare sector for development of comprehensive policy, increased capability and skills of the community service workers in specific healthcare aspects, enhanced investment in context of e-Health for accessing the information, implementation of the standards clinical protocols, and so on. Some of the recent reports have also highlighted the fact that Aboriginal PHC in Northern territory has shown a significant reduction in the hospitalization cases (Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet, 2016b). This shows that PHC in the Northern Territory has a pivotal role in health improvement of Indigenous individuals residing in that area.
Aboriginal Medical Services Alliance Northern Territory (AMSANT) plays the crucial role in the context of Indigenous PHC in Northern territory, this specifically focused of providing supportive service, establishing of the workforce support, policy development, renovation, public health, research areas, and advocacy. AMSANT had led a great improvement in the standards of the governments quality and services by including the concept of e-Health in this area (Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet, 2016a). Moreover, the accreditation of the quality management system at the organization level leads a crucial role in improving the governance quality and standards. Aboriginal community-controlled health sectors (ACCHS) are among the largest supplier of the PHC among the Indigenous community in the Northern Territory. This also ensures supply of the adequate amount of the service that could be provided in other jurisdictions. However, there are a few keys elements identified in improving the health outcomes of the Aboriginal population residing in the Northern Territory (Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, 2015).
The major priority issues involve collaboration in health planning that is facilitated by delivering of ACCHSs in every region. Moreover, this also includes the provision of evidence-based per capita model that will involve adequate numbers of the skilled community workforce. One of the important areas of the service is the improvement of quality on a continuous basis. Additionally, the social determinants of the healthcare aspect must be handled simultaneously with improvement of the PHC for Closing the Gap in the healthcare sector (Australian Medical Association, 2017). Regionalism within the Aboriginal community plays a vital role in reforming of the PHC services in the particular area. In this aspect, the healthcare showed improved status in their services and acted to be more cohesive, effective, and efficient in nature (Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2016). This also included involvement of the local community for the services and enhanced the scope of the service into a more holistic approach.
The regional health planning permits the area of duplication, this results in poor inter-service coordination for addressing the major settings in the services. Moreover, regionalism also includes the shift of Northern Territory government health-centers or clinics into regional ACCHs, that is, under a common health board. The process also provides a significant opportunity for integration, improves efficiency, and enhanced coordination. Moreover, multiple government clinics existing in the Northern Territory are efficiently managed centrally (Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2017b). Some of the regions also received facilities from both the government and the community services. However, at time, inefficiency in the services is experienced when there is over-reliance on visiting of the services. This results in duplication, patchwork and gap during the delivery of the effective service. Additionally, poor coordination and miscommunication are among the major underlying factors in the creation of the service gap (Australian Curriculum Assessment and Reporting Authority, 2017a).
The regionalism in PHC overflowed in September 2011 under the supervision of the Commonwealth Government, this resulted in compromising the strategy that contributed to health gains of the people due to the improvement of the PHC services. However, by 2015, PHC services saw some scope of improvement. Three specific areas were identified that included NTAHF in East Arnhem, Central Australia, and West Arnhem. AMSANT also approached for development of business case on a priority basis and it was submitted to the Commonwealth and NTAHF. In order to improve the efficiency and efficacy of PHC and the health outcome, the service needs to be expanded (Australian Curriculum Assessment and Reporting Authority, 2017b). Thus the expansion of the service included some new areas like child care, mental health, chronic disease, family support, alcohol, and drug services, and so on. The smaller ACCHSs and the clinics in the remote areas lacked economic support. Thus the regionalized ACCHSs helped in incorporation of the programs into the local PHC area. These efforts showed significant improvement in the health outcome of the Indigenous people. The services were enhanced by the involvement of the improved Commonwealth funding. However, in 2012, the per capita medical benefits and subsidized benefits utilized for the healthcare sector were just 53 and 34, respectively. The overutilization of both the services by Aboriginal population led to worsening the healthcare service status (Spaeth et al., 2018).
The service gap was also identified due to the tremendous increase in the prevalence ofo chronic disease. The cohort study performed by Central Australia affected with heart disease in their lifetime presented that approximately 70 of the Aboriginal male and 60 of the women are affected by heart disease in their lifetime (Australian Curriculum Assessment and Reporting Authority, 2017a). Another study conducted for the Northern Territory area found that there are lots of disparities in life expectancy of the people. In the remote community, the prevalence of obesity and other forms of the risk factor served as the onset of the chronic heart disease. Among the Aboriginal population, the prevalence of kidney disease was 50, heart disease 20, diabetes 40, and respiratory disease 30, respectively. Thus the effect of the growing burden of the disease raises serious concerns related to the health of the Aboriginal population (Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2017a). The national and international evidence showed that improving the quality PHC has the potential for resolving the burden of the disease. Thus the introduction of social programs in the healthcare sector as well as the social determinant area will be beneficial in significantly eliminating the biomedical risk in border scale (Zhao, et al., 2017). Moreover, continuous quality improvement will be one of the most crucial stages for improvement of the overall efficacy of the services.
Involvement of Media for Development of the Future of Bilingual Education and Indigenous Primary healthcare PolicyThe introduction of new media involvement has enhanced the visibility of the written language among the lives of the Aboriginal people. The introduction of the bilingual programs in the social networking sites results in increased visibility of the written language, this specifically influences the young speaker in learning of the specific language (Freeman et al., 2016). Thus the popularity of the digital culture has gained significant acquaintance and has also increased the awareness of both the languages and their utility. Moreover, the intractable method enables the media person to keep alive the issues related to any specific policy. In a similar manner, the media played a pivotal role in the context of Aboriginal Medical Services (AMS) (Thomas et al., 2015). Despite the collapse in the mainstream of this policy in the 2000s, approximately more than 140 services were able to survive that played the crucial role in terms of Closing the Gap in the federal government (Drews amp Van den Bergh, 2016).
Many of the studies emphasized the central role of the Indigenous media for policy advancement. Simultaneously famous journalists got engaged with the Aboriginals residing in North-East Arnhem Land and monitored various campaigns. The news was constructed due to the construction of cooperation between the journalist covering the campaign and the participants. The community workers and the Indigenous organization trained the people to use the media expertise so that they can efficiently access the relevant information (Freeman et al., 2016). The investment of the campaign is done with the involvement of various organizations and the spokesperson is also trained with formal media training. Additionally, engaging the mainstream media remained one of the key strategies for in-depth penetration of the policy in debates. The media people involved in these aspects try to ensure their perspective to be clear among the Aboriginal people (Baker et al., 2018). The organization basically aimed to advance the standard of the policy so that it could maximally benefit the Indigenous population. Moreover, the participants constructed a direct link between the media strategies and the success for influencing the process of policy.
The Aboriginal leaders exerted considerable influence in the context of the public policy and their discussion in the mainstream media. This also provided as established platforms for establishing of the advanced agenda. Another aspect of the study showed that strong leadership is required in order to attract an adequate amount of the media person in the study (LEtang, McKie, Snow, amp Xifra, 2015). On the other hand, the journalist played a crucial role in mediating the Aboriginals perspective among public spheres. They helped in the amplification of the specific policy perspective and downplaying them. One important aspect that highlighted from the study found that lack of empathy in the context of the Aboriginal issues contributed in the context of the poor journalism and negative aspect of the media. Thus the individuals engaged in themselves for choosing the adequate media person on the basis of their cultural competence (McDonald amp Thompson, 2016). Thus the aboriginals recognized the cultural competence to be the key attributes that should be present among the reporters involved in highlighting their issues. On the other hand, the journalists also gained their expertise of the cultural competence from their experience and playing a different role in such type of campaign.
ConclusionThe study provided a clear overview of the role of the policy assessor and the importance of policy assessment. This study showed the major role of the policy actors, that is, bureaucrats, journalist, community services, and academicians in enhancing the policy. The complete research highlighted various contexts of Bilingual system and PHC existing in Northern Territory. The study made it quite clear that the introduction of the bilingual education system in Northern Territory would be of greater importance in closing the major gap among the Indigenous and non-indigenous population. Moreover, the changing of ideology and the attitude of the Australian in the context of political, media, and social aspect will be beneficial in improving the situation in Northern Territory. On the other hand, the second policy analysed in this study was PHC. The previous reports on PHC showed significant improvement in health outcome of the people. However, a recent survey highlighted the significant disparity in the health outcome of the people. The evidence while conducting the study also highlighted the fact that effective actions in the context of social determinants will be beneficial in improving the primary health services around the territory. The media also have a significant contribution to the identification of the effectiveness of the service and their inconsistency. The media reporting also helped to identify the key areas that are responsible for creating a difference between the Aboriginals and their government. Thus the Indigenous policy advocates play a significant role in influencing the government policy, challenging it and make an important contribution to the benefits of the society. Therefore this research will serve as a tangible benefit for the individuals involved in development, influencing, and reporting of the public issues and the policies.
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