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The Emergence of Leadership Styles

Introduction to Kurt Lewin Model Applications

The case scenario is given in that it describes that a recent state-wide quality improvement project has shown that an electronic medical record system improves communication between health care providers and many aspects of the individual patient's care. The results of the quality improvement website showed that quality improvement needs to be done by sharing knowledge. The information is reviewed by the Local Health District's executive team on the state's quality improvement website. The Nurse Leader of the two hundred bed hospital called the Nurse Unit Managers for a meeting and advises of the general tending increase in communication errors. The Nurse Leader advises that the computer hardware and systems will be available for installation in two months and that there is an expectation that all wards have adopted the electronic medical record system within six months. This is the scenario that will be improved using Kurt Lewin's model of change. 

Use of Electronic Record System in A Hospital

Electronic health records are maintained in the hospital to have interaction within groups on healthcare services. Majorly, healthcare records are maintained by the organization to interpret and analyze patient information (Bakari, Hunjra & Niazi, 2017). The benefit of maintaining healthcare records in electronic format is that the information of staff is updated and accurate. This helps in maintaining efficiency and coordination to improve health records. Moreover, electronic health records provide a diagnosis of the patient, safe care, and reduction in medical errors. This way pen and paperwork are reduced to the minimum and automatically results in improved health and patient safety. Electronic health records help in preventing misuse of the information and focusing on the adoption of accurate means of documentation system (Mendenhall, Weber & Arnardottic et al., 2017). This means that electronic health records are easy to maintain and involve the services by staff members to provide care at all levels. Amongst the many change models, the Lewin model is found to be effective with the high involvement of healthcare service providers.

Kurt Lewin's model was developed as a change model that involves three steps that are unfreezing, freezing, and refreezing. This model in the past experiences is found to be very effective in understanding and forming the change process. Based on Lewin's reviews, change is caused by the perception that change is needed in the organization (McKimm & Till, 2015). Then, it involves moving forward to the desired level of reaching up to the final extent. This model is suitable in this case as Nurse Unit managers are advised by the nurse leader to go for an electronic medical record system with the tendency to reduce errors. This change was advised by the Local District Health team by following the three steps such as unfreezing to create awareness to follow the level of acceptability, changing for transitioning, or moving for implementation of change. Then the last step is refreezing, this involves solidifying and stabilizing the change done.

Unfreezing is the first step that will be followed by a nursing leader before a change is implemented because people are usually resisted change. This will follow the measure to create awareness on how the process of change will take place and what are the benefits of making change. Old behaviors, thinking processes, organizational structure, and people are examined carefully in this step to make appropriate changes for maintaining competitive advantage in the marketplace (McKimm & Till, 2015). For this step, communication is very important so that employees are told about the change that they are going to include in their working life. They will also be communicated that change will help them in getting benefited in the workplace as well as their personal life. The meaning of communicating the change is followed so that the employees feel comfortable and necessary, the most motivated to develop the change.

In this case, the nursing leader will help involve all the nursing staff to implement the change. The old behavior, thinking process, organizational structure, and people will be examined for the importance of change in the organization. Communication will be followed to convey all the respect for change (Marsh, 2015). The logic will be communicated so that the employees will come to know about the benefits that each employee will get. The reason behind this is that the more the person knows about the change, it will help feel comfortable, urgent, and necessary to motivate about the change. There is a great disruption caused in the system at the implementation stage for professional development. The methods are followed to drive change that has a direct influence over restraining forces and present situations.

While moving to the second stage of the Lewin model it involves movements and changes to have a positive impact on thoughts, behavior, and feelings. Nursing professionals are involved so that relevant information is shared, and staff is ready to adopt new change (Hussain, Lei & Akram et al., 2018). This is the most difficult step because it requires lots of effort to involve all the professionals in training.

Refreezing is the last stage that involves the person has attained all the relevant skills, now he/ she has to put them into their regular life. Implementation is the major point here that needs focus. It involves an evaluation process that whether the nursing professionals are performing to level set. This is the method followed by the healthcare organizations to experience in change implemented (Gelaidan, Al-Swidi & Mabkhot, 2018). This is the complete method that is followed by healthcare organizations to evaluate the performance. The development of organizational change is thereafter building a pathway to a solution, diagnosis of a problem, resource usage, and maintenance for change.

This is the model that is followed by the nursing professionals to develop a change in the healthcare institution. However, the change is said to be effectively implemented if stabilization among the processes is felt. The response of staff, effective communication, support system, and education are targeted in the implementation process (Gandolfi & Stone, 2017). Strong leadership is required to monitor and analyze change as per the requirement of the organization. The scenario of the nursing leader regarding change implementation and Kurt Lewin's model was like the nursing leader convinced and motivated the staff members to follow the electronic health record system. The use of the transactional model is to suit the level best for abilities and attitudes for the change management process (Peachey, Zhou & Damon et al., 2015).

Transformational Leadership vs Authentic Leadership

The transformational and authentic style of leadership is said to be two different types based on their characteristics and impact on the followers. The transformational leadership style is followed by leaders in healthcare organizations because they have a great impact on leaders and followers. The leaders who follow the transformational style are stated to have great enthusiasm and charisma with self-esteem, potential, skills enhancement, continued enjoyment, and intrinsic motivation (Burnes, Hughes & By, 2018). The major purpose of transactional leadership is to follow an evidence-based approach with positive effects of leadership. In comparison with authentic leadership, transformational leaders have good attitudes and behavior to deal with the situation. However, authentic leaders create a reliable and ethical culture within the organization. Moral leadership is followed by professionals to have strong ethics, reliability, morality, and integrity (Bartunek & Woodman, 2015). In this organization, the nursing leader used transformational leadership for the upliftment of ideas and positive vision in the hospital. This will help in attaining the simulation of ideas with a reasonable purpose (Reunanen & Kaitonen, 2017).

Conclusion on Kurt Lewin Model Applications

The discussion was held for the successful implementation of an electronic medical record system in hospitals. This will help the system in gaining more authenticity for root cause analysis of the problem. Moreover, transformational leadership is seen from the example that it has a positive impact on the upliftment of the organization. This way it will result in a quality improvement website for managing quality improvement needs to be done by sharing knowledge. The information will be easily reviewed by the Local Health District's executive team on the state's quality improvement website. This will thus help in the reduction of a communication error in the healthcare organization and the quality improvement of patients.

References for Kurt Lewin Model Applications

Bakari, H., Hunjra, A. I., & Niazi, G. S. K. (2017). How does authentic leadership influence plan organizational change? The role of employees' perceptions: Integration of theory of planned behavior and Lewin's three-step model. Journal of Change Management17(2), 155-187. https://doi.org/10.1080/14697017.2017.1299370\

Bartunek, J. M., & Woodman, R. W. (2015). Beyond Lewin: Toward a temporal approximation of organization development and change. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-orgpsych-032414-111353

Burnes, B., Hughes, M., & By, R. T. (2018). Reimagining organizational change leadership. Leadership14(2), 141-158. https://doi.org/10.1177%2F1742715016662188

Gandolfi, F., & Stone, S. (2017). The emergence of leadership styles: A clarified categorization. Revista De Management Comparat International18(1), 18. https://www.ceeol.com/search/article-detail?id=663332

Gelaidan, H. M., Al-Swidi, A., & Mabkhot, H. A. (2018). Employee readiness for change in public higher education institutions: Examining the joint effect of leadership behavior and emotional intelligence. International Journal of Public Administration41(2), 150-158. https://doi.org/10.1080/01900692.2016.1255962

Hussain, S. T., Lei, S., Akram, T., Haider, M. J., Hussain, S. H., & Ali, M. (2018). Kurt Lewin's change model: A critical review of the role of leadership and employee involvement in organizational change. Journal of Innovation & Knowledge3(3), 123-127. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jik.2016.07.002

Marsh, S. (2015). A leadership model that improves learning: New insights for schools and scholars. Leadership and Policy in Schools14(1), 67-103. https://doi.org/10.1080/15700763.2014.983132

McKimm, J., & Till, A. (2015). Clinical leadership effectiveness, change, and complexity. British Journal of Hospital Medicine76(4), 239-243. https://doi.org/10.12968/hmed.2015.76.4.239

Mendenhall, M. E., Weber, T. J., Arnardottir, A. A., & Oddou, G. R. (2017). Developing global leadership competencies: A process model. In Advances in global leadership. Emerald Publishing Limited. https://www.emerald.com/insight/content/doi/10.1108/S1535-120320170000010004/full/html?fullSc=1&mbSc=1&fullSc=1&fullSc=1

Peachey, J. W., Zhou, Y., Damon, Z. J., & Burton, L. J. (2015). Forty years of leadership research in sport management: A review, synthesis, and conceptual framework. Journal of Sport Management29(5), 570-587. https://doi.org/10.1123/jsm.2014-0126

Reunanen, T., & Kaitonen, J. (2017). Different roles in leadership styles in the modern organization. In Advances in human factors, business management, training, and education (pp. 251-262). Springer, Cham. https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-319-42070-7_24

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