Table of Contents
Discrimination on the basis of gender is called gender inequality. Mainly women are victims of gender inequality. Biological difference between men and women comes into the social arena and generates gender inequality. From personal to professional life women face varieties of problems. Gender inequality has different forms across different cultural practices. There are some natural differences exist between men and women, due to the effect of hormones and chromosomes. In the case of general intelligence, men and women have nearly the same intelligence. Men can take more risks with aggression, than women. These biological difference with psychological facts represent the 'division of labour' on the basis of gender.
The average differences between the salary of a man and a woman are called a pay gap. Women usually get less payment than men, for an equal amount of work. This is termed as a non-adjusted payment gap. The gender pay gap in Australia is the highest in Western Australia, 22.1%. It is the highest in health care and social service sector.
The gender pay gap is an important part of women studies and an international issue. Men always get more payments than women. As a result, it reduces the earning capacity of a woman during their lifetime. Men are more established than women in an economical structure. Male views get more attention than women views, as men have a strong economical background than women. Women get marginal space in working places. The company remains irresponsible towards various need of a woman (Kurniawan, Nurhaeni, & Bandari 2018). As per the Sage Journal, if a woman stays for a long time and provides great performance, the gender pay gap still exists (Chang et al., 2014). Even non-professionals get more than women professionals. Gender salary gap decreases gradually with time in most of the OECD countries, but Australia faces increments with gender bias. It's a myth that women are less capable of doing anything than man. This idea leads to the gender wage gap. Sometimes gender inequality has a greater impact like avoiding women to hire in any firm (Kee, 2006).
Among the labour market in Australia, this pay gap is very baffling (Todd & Eveline, 2004). Australia has seen wide advancement in the workforce for women in the past decade. some intentional policy has also taken that reduce this inequality of payment between man and woman. After all these steps, a gap persists. As per a report of 2017, gender payment gap changed with time in Australia. This report has strong evidence that payment gap changes with time in various workplaces. Several investigations also made in various private and government sectors to understand how payment gap changes, under this report. The investigation also made women, who are in higher management positions and it impacts the gender pay gap (Cassells,Duncan, & Ong 2017). September 2017 report says, increase in the gender pay gap is very incompatible for a developing country like Australia. The concluded a statistic that, if this gap reduced by 10%, per capita output increases by 3% (Kennedy, & others 2017).
Most of the economic and executive positions are chaired by the male. Women executives earn 80.7% of the total payment of a male executive. Along with above-mentioned results, a 2018 report mentioned that a broad part of the pay gap is created by the difference in position. Most of the executive women remain under presented, for highly paid positions. Excluding these executive positions, firms and individual things, a 15.1% gender gap persists in total pay (Yanadori, Gould & Kulik 2018).
A significant transformation occurred in Australian Labour market in the 1990s (Blau & Kahn, 2006). This transformation affects female earnings (Artz, Goodall & Oswald, 2018).
More gender inequality is found in wages as most of the women occupy low wages work, relative to man. That's why women get fewer wages than men (Kronberg 2020).
Society has a common idea that women are less active and unfit for most of the jobs. Women are incapable of doing heavy works and can't tolerate the workload. Women are for household works. Women can't fit in the office and can't handle clients and so on. Some of these facts lead to the fact like gender inequality (Blau & Kahn, 2003).
There is some natural difference between man and woman. There are some basic biological and psychological differences that identify the man and the woman. Men are physically more strong, active and a bit taller than women. Some biological fact behind these differences between man and woman. Men have lungs with large volume and more blood cells, while for women more white blood cells (Ekström et al., 2017). These facts identify the man from the woman. These provide a man more working power. And can tolerate workload.
Even from a tender age, boys are raised differently than girls. Parents and elders define masculinity for boys and innocence for girls. Girls get dolls as a gift, boys get truck, racing cars
as a gift. From this time their mentality changed and their way of living differs. Life leads man in a way which is far different than a woman. After the adolescence period, when it's time to face the world, everything started to change.
Women are identified with a sweet voice and men are with a baritone voice. Whenever it comes to work with voice, women get more preference than man. Their gender pay gap persists. This gap faced by man due to his masculine voice.
Men have strong muscles and have the ability to take workload and carry heavyweight. Women are not compatible with this. Men get more preference than women. Even, for heavyweight industry, there are very few slots for women to work.
For these above-mentioned cases, the gender pay gap is inapplicable. These part are termed as adjustable payment. Women started to enter into the workplace after the 1960s. From this time discrimination on the basis of gender is started. Nowadays women are walking in the same way as a man. Women are not left behind man, even women cross man and handling everything from the frontline. From the corporate world to ground workplace women started working parallel with a man. Excluding a few parts, women are more workaholic and consistent than men. Women handle everything with more perfection and deep attention.
If in these fields women face payment gap, it will very illogical. Payment is the cost of work. If work is done with perfection, there is no place for gender consideration. But, in some places, women can't handle the things properly due to their biological structure. This is not the fault that woman. If a worker has perfection, he\she deserves his payment. Her gender identity is not her fault, it's the law of nature. We can't drag this fact into work.
Gender payment gap leads the worker into the inferiority complex and a matter of prestige among her colleagues (Grimshaw, Whitehouse & Zetlin, 2001). Without considering her experience, excellence and performance, we can't evaluate anyone only based on her sexual identity. All, that matter experiences and performance that determines wages (Newell & Reilly, 2001).. If we restrict anyone according to his body structure and gender identity, we are objectifying her. This is something ridiculous.
Australia is one of the two developed countries that have a gender pay gap. Even in Australia, the gender pay gap is gradually increasing. In 2004 Australia has 14.9% gender pay gap, and in 2015 it rises to 18.9%. Australia has legislation that prohibits discrimination on the basis of sexual identity (Preston & Burgess, 2003). In spite of this legislation, Australia is facing the problem.
Everyone is equal in our society. Everyone with the same excellent should be treated the same. Discrimination is never an appreciable thing. An educated woman deserves her the right place to work with the right payment. Australia has two laws on the gender pay gap, 'Gender equality act' 2012 and 'Fair work act' 2009. Some labour organization of Australia also opposed and criticise this gender pay gap. A government report of Australia of 2016 said gender identity is the main driving force behind the gender pay gap. NATSEM data says that there is a gap between the financial condition of man and woman working on the same field.
Also, in the industrial arena, there is a difference between the wealth of men and women. Obviously, excluding the construction of companies. Where women get a few slots to work.
Even for some of the industries, there are fixed places for women too. Where men can't perform. Even in the sales and marketing industry, there is a huge difference in the wealth of man and a woman.
A May 2015 report suggests there is a 26% gap in weekly hours of work between a man and a woman. Which leads to making Western Australia as a part with the highest gender pay gap. Australian Broadcasting Corporation presented a data of 2015-16 in 2018. Where they listed the top ten fields with the biggest pay gap. Ophthalmologist has a gender pay gap of $330933. They also included a data sheet where females pay more income tax than males. Work needs payment, without physical identity. Experience and excellence justify the payment, not gender identity. We should this gender pay gap.
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Blau, F. D., & Kahn, L. M. (2003). Understanding international differences in the gender pay gap. Journal of Labor economics, 21(1), 106-144.
Blau, F. D., & Kahn, L. M. (2006). The US gender pay gap in the 1990s: Slowing convergence. ILR Review, 60(1), 45-66.
Cassells, R., Duncan, A. S., & Ong, R. (2017). Gender equity insights 2017: Inside Australia’s gender pay gap (No. GE02). Bankwest Curtin Economics Centre (BCEC), Curtin Business School.
Chang, J., Connell, J., Burgess, J., & Travaglione, A. (2014). Gender wage gaps in Australian workplaces: are policy responses working?. Equality, Diversity and Inclusion: An International Journal.
Ekström, M., Sundh, J., Schiöler, L., Lindberg, E., Rosengren, A., Bergström, G., ... & Brandberg, J. (2017). Absolute lung size explains the sex difference in breathlessness in the general population.
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Kee, H. J. (2006). Glass ceiling or sticky floor? Exploring the Australian gender pay gap. Economic Record, 82(259), 408-427.
Kennedy, T., Rae, M., Sheridan, A., & Valadkhani, A. (2017). Reducing gender wage inequality increases economic prosperity for all: Insights from Australia. Economic Analysis and Policy, 55, 14-24.
Kronberg, A. K. (2020). Workplace Gender Pay Gaps: Does Gender Matter Less the Longer Employees Stay?. Work and Occupations, 0730888419868748.
Kurniawan, Y., Nurhaeni, I. D. A., & Habsari, S. K. (2018, February). Gender Bias in the Workplace: Should Women be Marginalized in Engineering Job?. In IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering (Vol. 306, No. 1, p. 012132). IOP Publishing.
Newell, A., & Reilly, B. (2001). The gender pay gap in the transition from communism: some empirical evidence. Economic Systems, 25(4), 287-304.
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Todd, P., & Eveline, J. (2004). Report on the review of the gender pay gap in Western Australia. Australia: University of Western Australia.
Yanadori, Y., Gould, J. A., & Kulik, C. T. (2018). Does a fair go? The gender pay gap among corporate executives in Australian firms. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 29(9), 1636-1660.
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