The safety and error prevention literature show that poor or inappropriate coordination between members of the team is a critical factor leading to adverse accidents. Communication problems in primary care settings lead to increased patient injury, duration of service, and use of resources, as well as the more severe caregiver frustration and faster turnover (Rodziewicz & Hipskind, 2020). Electronic medication management has also been designed to increase patient safety by growing prescription readability, incorporating active and passive patient support, and providing access to medical information in a wide variety of areas. But the nursing staff can be hesitant to use the technology (Debono et al., 2017). It is the responsibility of the nurse leaders to take charge and make the change smooth for the staff. In this essay, the implementation of an electronic medication system has been discussed to make the process smooth and efficient for the nursing staff and patient to reduce medical errors.
The electronic medication system is an effort for patient health, but some consumers see it as an activity that saves costs. The electronic medical system is a broad concept that encompasses all of the computer systems involved. It is a locked system that includes management and control, delivering, tracking drugs, smart infusion pumps, automated dispenser machines, supplying barcode drugs, or anything which holds computerized medicine data sets or medication control systems. It increases access to prescription history from the GP to a hospital and again to a GP through the provision of care. It also helps to reduce the medical errors that are caused by poor communication between health care professionals (Guardiani et al., 2016). For district-wide programs, this database is eligible for transitions or potential enrollment to all locations throughout the local health district. For instance, whenever a patient goes from an NSW hospital, the departure document will be published from the program, as well as the discharged drug list will be transmitted to GPs, NSW HealtheNet, and My Health Record in the automated release report. An electronic prescription program makes administration records readily available. Data and information contained in electronic prescription applications enable drug consumption audits, particularly monitoring antibiotic stewardship orders, medication recalls, and use trend analysis (Jawhari et al., 2016). The applications that provide standardized prescription guidelines for particular conditions, such as pain control, vaccinations, and severe cardiovascular symptoms.
Since the nursing staff can be hesitant towards the use of the electronic medical system, a model of change has to be used for efficient implementation. Kurt Lewin developed a three-step transition model: unfreezing, changing, and refreezing. This framework offers an unmistakably clear and precise foundation for understanding change management. The change cycle includes establishing the impression that electronic medical systems are needed, then shifting to the desired target level of actions, and eventually implanting the electronic medical system in the workplace (Hussain et al., 2018).
Unfreezing: Before bringing any change in the hospital system the staff has to be informed about the same. Since many health practitioners will instinctively resist change, the goal during this stage is to build awareness of the new program and its relevance to the health care system (Cummings et al., 2016). Old habits, thought styles, procedures, people, and organizational strategies everything needs to be carefully studied to show nurses that it is important to establish an electronic medical system for a reduction in medical errors. this phase will take two weeks.
Changing: This changing phase, also referred to as 'transitioning' or 'moving,' is marked by the introduction of the electronic medical system. This is when the electronic systems are set up in the hospital setting. The installations of the electronic systems will take a month. Therefore it is also the time when most people are grappling with the new reality. Health care staff should be mindful of the factors in this process for the change, and how it will benefit them until it is fully enforced.
Refreezing: It is extremely important to understand that employees should not return to the old modes of viewing or doing things until the change is introduced. Leaders will make special attempts to get the electronic medical system accepted. Good incentives and appreciation of personalized actions should be provided to nurses who will use the new program effectively as it is understood that good validated conduct will possibly reproduce itself (Burnes, 2020).
The changes in the hospital settings require a good efficient and rational leader who can manage and plan things during a change-making beneficial for the staff as well as patients. A successful and sustainable shift involves continuous contact, not only during the launch but after the plan's essential components are also in position. Effective change management becomes more probable if nursing leaders develop a definable plan by identifying priorities, threats, expectations, costs, return on investment, and cultural challenges that influence the success of the activities and responsibilities (Yang & Chen, 2019). The rational leader has to explain the nursing staff about why the electronic medical system is undertaken and the benefits of successful implementation will be, and what how the electronic system will be set up. The leader will inspire the workers by preparing the organization's successful education curriculum, or skills upgrade scheme. The leader will recognize the problems and balance the issues by making tactics to combat the staff's resistance to the electronic medical system. In offering personal therapy (if required) to relieve any change-related concerns, the nurse leader can also provide a rational approach. Last but not least, the logical leader must also control execution and, if possible, fine-tuning (MacKillop, 2018).
In the logical leadership style, the transition is introduced and well embraced as opposed to a task-oriented leadership style. The task-oriented leader aims to build an agile and fast-responding organization that can rapidly identify threats and capture possibilities as strategies for transformation are planned and put into action. Task-oriented leaders agree that change is ongoing, and the requisite organizational maturity is adaptability. Continued leadership requires an insistent approach to transition. Concern to the employees and the problems is not mitigated strategically (Alvi & Rana, 2019). Instead, it is assumed that an organization needs reform. A task-oriented leader's prime objective is the job itself. Supplying organizational help, training, and encouragement is seen as a diversion that takes time away from what the boss considers as vital tasks — those specifically relevant to the job at hand. If they feel unable to control any part of their employment, employees may become demoralized. If the task-oriented leader wants to monitor the situation, its workers can become dissatisfied and also have decreased job satisfaction (Rüzgar, 2018). Exacerbating the issue is the reality that a task-oriented boss is completely disinterested in the thoughts or feelings of the workforce and does not see much benefit in having flexibility for his staff.
While there can be many unforeseen consequences of the electronic medical system, while balancing the benefits and drawback are important as they are beneficial particularly at the level of health care systems. The potential drawback of the electronic medical system is the risk of privacy violations for patients, which is a rising concern for patients due to the increasing amount of health details transmitted over the network. To resolve a few of these concerns, decision-makers have introduced steps to protect the safety and confidentiality of the medical profession (Dendere et al., 2019). For example, all electronic medical systems require an audit function that allows network administrators to identify each patient who has viewed every aspect of a specific health record. For staff who have unauthorized access to the records, many doctors and hospitals enforce strict, no-tolerance policies. Besides, end-users of an electronic medical system can encounter intense emotions and reactions as they strive to adjust to new technologies and application disturbances. Changes in an organization's power structure can also arise due to an electronic medical system being introduced. A doctor can lose his or her autonomy in determining medical decisions, for example, because an electronic medical system prevents the authorization of such tests or medicines (Kamal, 2018). Organizations should ensure that basic hospital services could still be delivered throughout the existence of technologies, particularly in times whenever system downtime may be crucial.
The electronic medical system helps providers better coordinate patient care and deliver quality health care by providing reliable, up-to-date, and detailed patient information at the point of treatment. Facilitating fast access to medical information for a more organized, more reliable treatment. Electronic medical records monitor the usage of pharmaceutical drugs by traditional software. For district-wide programs, this database is eligible for transitions or potential enrollment to all locations throughout the local health district. The rational leader has to explain the nursing staff on why the electronic medical system is implemented and the benefits of effective introduction will be, and what how the electronic system will be set up. While there are several unforeseen effects of electronic medical systems, while weighing the benefits and drawbacks of such schemes, they are beneficial, particularly at the systemic stage.
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Burnes, B. (2020). The origins of Lewin’s three-step model of change. The Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, 56(1), 32-59.
Cummings, S., Bridgman, T., & Brown, K. (2016). Unfreezing change as three steps: rethinking Kurt Lewin’s legacy for change management. Human Relations, 69(1), 33-60.
Debono, D., Taylor, N., Lipworth, W., Greenfield, D., Travaglia, J., Black, D., & Braithwaite, J. (2017). Applying the theoretical domains framework to identify barriers and targeted interventions to enhance nurses’ use of electronic medication management systems in two Australian hospitals. Implementation Science, 12(1), 42.
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