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  • Subject Name : Clinical Nursing

Leadership Theory in Clinical Setting

Introduction

Healthcare leadership is one of the most important because it not only improves the clinical outcome of the patient but it also tries to improve the well-being of the workplace by providing a healthy working environment. Leadership theories help to increase the understanding of the individual regarding the new concept, lessons, and skills that directly improve the working practice (Hargett et al., 2017).

Many leadership theories are applied for improving the working practice and they are formed according to the different skills of the leaders. The different leadership theory includes contingency theories, transactional theory, trait theory, participative, transformational theory and process leadership theory (Ahmed et al., 2016). The report will discuss the two leadership models which includes participative and transformational theory. The report will be analyzing different aspect of the theory and its strength and limitation. The report will also analyze its implication in the health care sector to understand the effect of the theory in the clinical setting.

Transformational Leadership Theory

The changing world scenario and increased use of technology in the organization elevate the need for the organizations to improve their awareness toward the changing environment that can be used to improve organization. The transformation leadership theory discusses that the role of the leader is to recognize the need of the environment which can be used to introduce the change that helps the organization to move toward a better future. The transformational leader not only improves the organizational working practise but he/she also strength the staff by increasing understanding of their issue that directly improve the working practice.

The theory implies that transformational leadership help to improve the organization by seeking for a new idea that can help to improve the new perspective that can directly lead to growth and prosperity of the organization. There are different dimensions of the transformation leadership which include idealized influence, inspirational motivation, intellectual stimulation, personal consideration that shape the transformational theory. The transformational leader utilizes this aspect while working with employees to improve the working environment that directly improves employee satisfaction (Korejan, Shahbazi & Hasan, 2016).

The transformational theory emphasises to improve the basic need of the organization and employee that aim to create a better workplace by inspiring followers to utilize their skill to find a new solution. The theory mainly focuses on the critical human assets that will help to improve the commitment of the individual to improve the organization working. The four dimensions discussed are the important part of the transformational theory that includes the idealised influence that helps to share the vision with followers and develop a relationship to improve the understanding between the team. The individualised consideration is applied to understand the identification of the individual need that helps to build the learning environment.

The inspirational motivation is required to inspire human that help to increase the expectation of the employees. The last dimension is intellectual stimulation that helps to increase the knowledge of the employees to increase the chances of innovative ideas and solution that will help the organization. The transformational leadership model aims to improve the perspective of the individual regarding the working process and help the employees to improve the working procedure that results in positive organization result (Ghasabeh & Provitera, 2017).

Strength and Limitation of Transformational Leadership Theory

The article presented by Steinmann, Klug and Maier (2018) discussed the different strength related to the transformational leader and how this theory is useful to improve working condition. The article described how transformational leader balance out the profit of both organization and employee to maintain a rhythm between them. The article proposed different strength of the transformation leadership theory that increases its use in the organization. The first strength discussed by the researcher is individual are treated equally and their uniqueness is welcomed because the transformation leader tries to utilize the different skills of the individual to improve the working practises that directly increase motivation in the individual toward work.

The transformational leaders have good communication that helps to maintain the collaboration in the team that directly help to build a healthy and better working environment. The ethical implication during the work is also one of the strengths according to the researcher that helps to improve the working practise that is right according to the ethical principle. One of the strengths of the transformation leader includes increasing employee retention to provide the organization highly skilled and experience individual. The last strength discussed by the researcher includes transformation leader directly decrease the low-moral environment by increasing the energy among the employees to improve the organizational environment (Steinmann, Klug & Maier, 2018).

The study presented by Anderson and Sun (2015) discuss about the limitation that is associated with transformational leadership theory and they also decrease the application of the theory at an organizational scale. The different limitation associated with the theory includes the negative impact of the leader on the followers that can lead to disagreement in the team. The article also describes sometimes risk taken by the transformational leader can be disrupted not only for the employee but for the organization also.

The transformational leader seeking different opportunity to improve the future of the organization some lead to ignorance of the certain protocol that is important for the working practises. The transformational leader always require feedback to analyse the different technique and sometimes lack of feedback can lead to the less appropriate technique that directly leads to decrease employee satisfaction (Anderson & Sun, 2015). These different limitations decrease its application and limit its utility in a different sector.

Transformational Leadership Theory in The Health Care Setting

The transformational leadership theory stimulates the subordinates to work in collaboration and share a vision to improve the working procedure. The transformational leader encourages the nurses to new technology and evidence-based to find the solution for the old problem that directly help to improve the working practice. The transformational leader assisted the nurses to improve their wellbeing and improve the skill that helps them to cope up with the work-related stress. The transformational leadership help to improve the follower work attitude that has a strong influence over the working practice of the nurses.

Use of transformational leadership directly increase the job satisfaction that is the foremost priority of the nurses and provide a healthy environment to improve the psychological wellbeing of the nurses as they are indulging with negativity during working hour. The organizational commitment is also one of the factors that are influenced by the transformational leadership and it increases the nurse attraction and retention in the organization. The transformational leadership model help to empower the nurse and provide them with a healthy environment to work and improve a skill that can be utilized to improve patient care. (Lin et al., 2015).

Moreover, the article presented by Renjith and George, (2015) describes that transformational leadership has positive effect which directly leads to the improved performance of the employee that directly benefit the organization. The article describes that beginner nurse trained under the transformational leaders have a greater commitment toward the organization and increase the trust toward colleagues.

The different skill life professional values, teamwork and accountability toward patient can be improved by the transformational leadership as it helps to identify the individual skill to improve the working procedure. The transformational leader aims to create a positive vibe in the working environment by utilizing the optimistic attitude, encouraging tone and skill development behaviour that directly improve eth equality of care. The positive changes generated by the transformational leader will help the nurses to provide the quality of care to a patient without increase workload stress that can hamper their health (Renjith & George, 2015).

The higher workload and increased job-related stress harm patient health that directly decreases patient satisfaction. The transformational leadership help to reduce the distress over the nurses and provide them with a better environment that directly has a positive effect on the patient health status. The transformational leadership help the nurse to resolve the work-related issue that directly helps in effective working which improve the patient health status. The transformational leadership directly improve the working environment which decreases the work-related stress of the health professional and improve their working capacity that helps to improve quality of care. The transformational leadership model helps the nurses to manage the work-related time to reduce workload and leader provide them assistance if they are facing any issue in the working protocol (Boamah et al., 2018).

Participative Leadership Theory

Participative leadership implies one of the ideal leaderships that involves taking input from others. The participatory leader increases the participation of the other employees and provides them with equal opportunity in the decision making to improve the working process (Uzohue, Yaya & Akintayo, 2016). The increased involvement of the individual in the decision to increases the feeling of importance and motivate them to work together to achieve a collaborative formed goal. The leader has the right to involve the number of a participant in the decision making that directly increase the quality of the decision which improves the organization results. The participative leader is also known as a democratic leader as they consult with the team member and then lead to decision making which is influenced by the collaborative perspective of the team.

The subordinates play a central role in participatory leadership and they are equally indulged in goal setting, problem-solving or team building. This type of leadership allows the open discussion with the employee to understand their perspective regarding the issue or goal that can be used to reach up to a decision by utilizing ideas of every individual. the participatory leadership aim to maintain the responsibility, flexibility and high moral values in the employee which will improve working practice which leads to organizational profit (Uzohue, Yaya & Akintayo, 2016).

The non-authoritative behaviour of the participative leader provides the equal opportunity to the subordinates that help to increase the feeling to teamwork which improve the bonding in the team. The participative leader plays the role of coach that promote the open discussion which allows the individual to freely put forward their idea which can be utilized to reach up to a final decision (Bhatti et al., 2019). The main aim of participative leadership is to motivate and empower each member of the organization that ain to improve the productivity of the organization. The consultative style of the participative leadership model increases its versatility and lead to innovative ideas that can assist during problem-solving.

The participatory leadership lead to build human capability and increase a sense of responsibility toward organization and decision making which lead to increase employee satisfaction. The organizational encounter positive result when the employee feels that their presence is valued and they are equally important for the organization that is developed by the participatory leadership model. The participatory model allows the individual to freely discuss any resistance related to the organization that is hampering their capability and help the individual to resolve the issue by mutual understanding.

The employee feels no threat while working under a participatory leader that allows them to use their full potential and try innovation that may lead to a better organizational outcome. The positive reciprocate attitude of the employee-generated due to the effective role of participative leader which increase the power of the employee. The self-efficacy and self-worth are promoted by the participative leader that directly lead to better employee result which is the main of the organization (Bhatti et al., 2019).

Strength and Limitation

According to Khajeh (2019), participative leadership is associated with one of the finest leadership models that utilize the individual perspective to reach up to a decision that is required for the goo future of the organization. The article described certain strength of the participatory leadership model that directly benefit not only the organization but also self-motivate the employee. Complex issues can be easily solved if the participative leader utilizes the different perspective of the individual which help to understand the different aspect of the issue that lead to a better decision regarding the issue. The positive organizational result is directly associated with participative leadership that is also one of the strengths of the leadership model.

One of the major strengths of the participative leadership model in the preparation of the future leader as every involved in the decision making that can help the organization to run for a longer time. The employee performance is positively influenced by the participative leader which directly increase employee retention and improve the organization profit margins. The participatory leadership model directly helps to increase knowledge of the teammates by a group discussion that they can utilize in future to improve their future practice. Participatory leadership is considered to be one of the finest models as it directly increases organization performance as well as increasing the efficiency of the employees (Khajeh, 2019).

The article presented by Aslam, Selamat and Nasir (2019) describe some limitation that is associated with a participatory leadership model that set its limit in the organization. The participatory model help to improve the working practises of the organization but sometimes it leads to negative emotion due to continuous preference of idea of one individual can discourage other individuals. Another limitation associated with participatory leadership model includes procrastinating that lead to negative effect over the organization. The leader finds it difficult to maintain the whole team together while decision making that directly results in a delayed decision which can lead to complication for the organization.

Sometimes due to lack of skill and participative leadership lead to a less accurate result that directly affects the organization result which can lead to negative consequences. The participative leader sometimes questioned about his/her capability due to increase participation of the team members in the decision making that directly decrease the moral of the leader. One of the important limitations of the participatory leader is lack of teamwork that directly affects the working procedure and lead to a poor organizational result (Aslam, Selamat & Nasir, 2019).

Participative Leadership Theory in The Health Care Setting

The changing health care demand the new leadership style that should involve the collaborative efforts of the management, doctors, health care professional and patient to improve the working practises. The participative leadership model allows every individual to participate in the care process that helps to frame it according to the collaborative effort will lead to better health results (De Brún, O’Donovan & McAuliffe, 2019). The participative leadership is used to utilize the individual skill during the patient care to provide the quality of care which directly improves the health status of the patient.

The participatory leadership theory utilizes the different skill of the individual to form a team that aims to help the patient in the need. The shared responsibility of every individual of the team helps to improve the nurse attitude toward job and increase their satisfaction that directly helps to improve their performing. The participation leadership’s model helps the health care model to be more person-centred that leads to positive health result.

The participatory model provides the nurse’s equal opportunity to share their views regarding the hospital setting and these can be utilized to reanalysed the issue in the hospital setting that is required to changes to improve the working practice. The participatory model is preferred in the health care setting as it is useful while working in the multidisciplinary team where there is the requirement of the collaboration between the team to provide quality of care to the patient (De Brún, O’Donovan & McAuliffe, 2019).

According to the World Health Organization (2016), the increasing complexity of the health system due to the involvement of the different component with a multitude of actors increases the need for better leadership model. The participatory leadership model is considered to be one of the promising models for the improved health care system. It aims to empower the diverse action group in health care and provide them with a stress-free environment to participate in the improvement of the system. The participatory leadership provide the opportunity for each group to utilize their skill and contribute to changes and to share responsibility for the decision making that lead to better results.

The participatory leadership model aims for the sustainable development of the organization by utilizing teamwork that aims to improve the health care settings. Three attributes of participatory leadership directly increase its utility in the health care setting. The first aspect includes health care setting requires inclusive and consultative leadership that aims to build, nurture, identify strength and values the diversity of the team member. The second aspect includes the requirement of the expertise which lead to an improvement in the working procedure by utilizing knowledge and skill in the care process. The last aspect includes increase teamwork in the workforce that directly helps to improve the skill of the workforce that leads to a better health outcome of the patient (De Brún, O’Donovan & McAuliffe, 2019).

Conclusion

The report discussed the two-leadership model and the utility in the health care setting. The first leadership model is the transformational leadership model that utilized the collaborative effort of the team to work together to reach a goal. The main aim of the transformational model is to identify the issue within the working and sharing the vision with the team to improve the working procedure of the organization. There are certain limitations of the model which include negative emotion of team member due to the preference of one individual and lack of the skill of the team can lead to the less accusative decision that leads to the poor result. The transformational leadership model help to encourage the nurses reading the working process that directly improve the health care working procedure.

The second is the participatory leadership model that utilizes the individual perception in the decision making that helps to improve the teamwork of the organization. The participatory model allows the open discussion of the team regarding the issue to find the best possible solution that can be used to overcome the issue. The limitation associated with the model includes delayed in decision making that can lead to negative consequences and questioning the skill of the leader that directly demotivate the leader. The improved health setting requires the participative model to utilize the skill of the different health associates to improve the care process.

References

Ahmed, Z., Nawaz, A. & Khan, I. U. (2016). Leadership Theories and Styles: A Literature Review. Journal of Resources Development and Management, 16, 1-7. Retrieved from https://iiste.org/Journals/index.php/JRDM/article/view/28481/29226

Anderson, M. H., & Sun, P. Y. T. (2015). The downside of transformational leadership when encouraging followers to network. The Leadership Quarterly, 26(5), 790–801. doi:10.1016/j.leaqua.2015.05.002

Aslam, A., Selamat, M. H. & Nasir, M. U. (2019). Effect of participative leadership and employees training on organizational productivity: a study of E & E sector in Malaysia. Academy of Entrepreneurship Journal, 25(2), 1-10. Retrieved from https://www.ijrte.org/wp-content/uploads/Souvenir_Volume-8_Issue-2S_July_2019.pdf

Bhatti, M. H., Ju, Y., Akram, U., Bhatti, M. H., Akram, Z. & Bilal, M. (2019). Impact of participative leadership on organizational citizenship behavior: mediating role of trust and moderating role of continuance commitment: evidence from the Pakistan hotel industry. Sustainability, 11(1170), 1-21. https://doi.org/10.3390/su11041170

Boamah, S. A., Spence Laschinger, H. K., Wong, C., & Clarke, S. (2018). Effect of transformational leadership on job satisfaction and patient safety outcomes. Nursing Outlook, 66(2), 180–189. doi:10.1016/j.outlook.2017.10.004

De Brún, A., O’Donovan, R. & McAuliffe, E. (2019). Interventions to develop collectivistic leadership in healthcare settings: a systematic review. BMC Health Serv Res 19(72), 1-22. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12913-019-3883-x Ghasabeh, M. S. & Provitera, M. J. (2017). Transformational leadership: building an effective culture to manage organisational knowledge. The Journal of Value-Based Leadership, 10(2), 1-10. Retrieved from https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/dd7c/e38da908a1db02d569bb5a7a68b1cc1a8eab.pdf

Hargett, C. W., Doty, J. P., Hauck, J. N., Webb, A. M., Cook, S. H., Tsipis, N. E., Neumann, J. A., Andolsek, K. M., & Taylor, D. C. (2017). Developing a model for effective leadership in healthcare: a concept mapping approach. Journal of healthcare Leadership, 9, 69–78. https://doi.org/10.2147/JHL.S141664

Khajeh, E. H. A. (2018). Impact of Leadership Styles on Organizational Performance. Journal of Human Resources Management Research, 2018 (687849), 1-10. DOI: 10.5171/2018.687849 

Korejan, M & Shahbazi, Hasan. (2016). An analysis of the transformational leadership theory. Journal of Fundamental and Applied Sciences, 8(3S), 452-461. Doi: 10.4314/jfas.v8i3s.192.

Lin, P., MacLennan, S., Hunt, N. & Cox, T. (2015). The influences of nursing transformational leadership style on the quality of nurses’ working lives in Taiwan: a cross-sectional quantitative study. BMC Nurs 14(33), 1-9. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12912-015-0082-x

Renjith, V., G, R. & George, A. (2015). Transformational leadership in nursing. International Journal of Scientific Research & Management Studies. 2(2). 112-118. 

Steinmann, B., Klug, H., & Maier, G. W. (2018). The path is the goal: How transformational leaders enhance followers' job attitudes and proactive behavior. Frontiers in Psychology, 9(2338), 1-15. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2018.02338

Uzohue, C. E., Yaya, J. A. & Akintayo, O. A. (2016). A review of leadership theories, principles, styles and their relevance to management of health science libraries in Nigeria. Journal of Educational Leadership and Policy, 1(1), 17-26. doi:10.5923/j.mm.20150501.02

World Health Organization. (2016). Open Mindsets: Participatory Leadership for Health. Retrieved from https://www.who.int/alliance-hpsr/resources/publications/participatory-leadership/en/

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