In simple words, leadership is the process which impacts on the behavior of the followers to achieve the set objectives. In the organization leadership is the ability of a leader to encourage the employees to work with zeal and confidence. It has the potential to influences the attitude of others towards the target. In the organization, leaders are needed to develop future visions as well as to motivate the employees to achieve the set visions. The leadership required few qualities such as maturity, personality and intelligence etc. However, leadership are situation bound so there is no specific best style. It has been found that all the leaders do not have the same attitudes and style. Therefore, the leadership style also varies according to the person. The leadership style supports the leader to carry out the best out of the followers. There are various types of leadership styles such as autocratic leadership style, laissez-faire, bureaucratic and democratic leadership style (Holten and Brenner 2015). This assessment includes the critical analysis of the two peer view article which will provide the understanding of the leadership theories, concepts and practices. This critical analysis will highlight the theories, values and assumption of each article.
Overview of article
According to Gandofli and Stone (2018), servant leadership style fulfill all the criteria of successful leadership. In the organization servant leadership has given a significant contribution. Moreover, in the organization servant leadership works because it has the proven component of effective leadership. It is the most interactive leadership styles when it involves follower and leader engagement. According to the view of the author, the servant leader supports their followers to grow which directly lead to achieving the organizational mission. On the other hand, Caldwell et al. (2012), state that transformative leadership style has the capability to identify all the aspects by highlighting the requirement of long-term wealth creation and concentrating on the balanced success. However, transformative leadership follows all ethical standards and commitment which generate a positive impact on the people and society. As per the view of author transformative leadership have six highly regarded perspectives that are transformational leadership, principle-centred leadership, servant leadership, level 5- leadership and covenantal leadership. Each perspective has explained the basic ethical based characteristics as well as identified that fundamental theme that contributes towards the transformative leadership. The transformative leadership is initiated on the basis leadership model that involves a commitment to values and takes out the results through optimizing the long term interests of stakeholders and society. The objective of Gandolfi and Stone is to provide a better understanding of the leadership as well as to provide clarity about the leadership style and their critical attributes (Gandolfi and Stone 2018). While the objective of Caldwell et al. is to provide an understanding of the new standard of ethical leadership that is transformative leadership. Furthermore, both the article is different from each other because in first article the author is talking about the effectiveness of servant leadership and the second article is talking about the transformative leadership (Caldwell et al. 2012). Both leadership styles are different from each other but both leadership style works with a moral perspective.
The Caldwell et al. article demonstrates that the structure of transformative leadership grasp the attention of the follower and motivate them for new vision within the organization and communities. However, the model of transformative leadership is completely ethical demanding along with this leadership help to surpass the current capabilities and moral standards. The contradicting view of Gandolfi and Stone indicate that the earlier the concept of servant leadership was taking incorrectly and it is influenced by various cultures across the world. However, the article also shows that all the leadership style does not lead an excellent organizational future. Therefore, in the organization, the selection of leadership is becoming important. To better understand about the servant leadership style it is important to understand about the two significant principles of effective leadership; first is virtually every individual has the ability to develop the leadership relationships and second is leaders are not born they are made. Whereas, the transformative leadership concentrate on others instead of self and this leadership style is externally directed and its results are centred instead of comfort centered. Thus, the article is discussing two different leadership styles.
Leadership theory and practices
Yes, I agree with both author view as both the article are talking about different leadership style; servant leadership style and transformative leadership style. Servant leadership is a kind of leadership style where the objective of the leader is to serve. Whereas, the transformative leadership style is moral based leadership style, as well as this leadership style, to determine new solutions instead of using old solutions to resolve the new problems.
Both the leadership style of servant and transformative are supporting the current leadership practices. The theory of transformative leadership style follows the practice of enabling others. In this leadership style, leaders do not achieve the targets themselves as they achieve the targets through others. This practice also works on collaboration and relationship to achieve success (Shields 2018). The transformative leadership helps in strengthen others by sharing information and power. On the other hand, the servant leadership style is to determine the social theories that how it influence the follower behavior; social exchange theory and social learning. Moreover, the servant leadership style is involved in the practice of employee organizational commitment. In the organization, servant leaders are creating their employees the key priority so that employees can return the obligation and commitment (Seto and Sarros 2016). This leadership style transforms the organization as well as help to develop a positive image for the organization. Servant leadership style involves the organization commitment where the employee acts as the servant leaders and shows great commitment to the organization success. The practical example of the servant leadership style is Martin Luther King, Jr. who does not want to be a leader just he wanted equality. He always put other people first due to which he was able to leave his lasting legacy. He included the servant leadership style into practice which indicates that any individual can make the difference with serving and humbling perspective. However, the transformative leadership incorporated the perspective of all the leadership styles; transformational, covenantal, charismatic, servant, level5 and principle-centred leadership style. Moreover, the transformative leadership follow the behavioural theory as its concentrates on the particular behaviour and actions of leaders instead of traits and characteristics. This theory also proposes that successful leadership is the outcome of the various learned skills. Though, the transformative leadership style incorporates all the basic skills to lead the followers- conceptual, technical and human. The technical skill indicates the process knowledge, human skills indicate the level of communication with followers and the conceptual skills indicate that the leader has the idea to run the organization and society smoothly.
Transformational leadership theory is the relevant theory that demonstrates the ideas emerged in each article. The transformational leadership theory incorporates the perspective of both the leadership style transformative and servant because this theory improves the motivation, job performance and morale. This theory raises the awareness about the moral standards as both the leadership style concern about molarity and ethics. It also shares the ethical climate as well as values. Moreover, it encourages the follower to look beyond the self-interest and work for a common target (Berkovich 2016.). This theory also considers that leader act as the role model where the followers imitate the leader. Therefore, both leaders servant and transformative always win the confidence and respect of their followers.
From the learning of Gandofli and Stone’s article, as a leader, I will implement the learning of servant leadership at the workplace as the article suggests that servant leadership is effective. In the organization servant leadership will help to develop the others as a leader as I believe that employees have present and future value. To maintain a healthy workplace environment it is important to cultivate the employees towards achieving the common goals and objectives. Moreover, being a servant leader it is important to value the organizational people. It has been identified that the leader who values its employee and their requirement can help to meet the organizational requirements. At workplace servant leadership help to develop the community as the leader bring the different people together. Therefore, it is the duty of the leader to share the organizational vision rather than getting the job done. Implementing, the servant leadership will be beneficial as it focuses to understand the relationship of the employees as well as influence the quality of relationship for achieving the tasks (Chiniara and Bentein 2016). In the organization, it is becoming essential to celebrate and respect the difference of gender, culture, age and ethnicity and along with this to make the employees feel that they are valued team teams. Apart from this, servant leadership act as sharing leadership so, in the organization is a leader I can share the vision which will lead to drawing the skills, abilities and resources which help to accomplish organizational objectives. It has been identified that sharing the power in the organization demonstrate the capability to allocate the resources and help to make important decisions. At the workplace, the servant leadership is about the position, prestige and status because the servant leaders are likely to repel the special rights. As a servant leader, I am about the fact that in the organization every employee should be recognized and confirmed their contribution towards success.
On the other hand, from the learning of Caldwell's article, I will implement the transformative leadership as it incorporates perspectives of various leadership style which help to fulfill the organizational objectives. The transformative leadership involves the attributes of transformational leadership which help to focus on the synergistic change. It also incorporates the charismatic leadership which has the capability to create a personal relationship. Moreover, it incorporates the attribute of the level 5, principle-centred, servant and convenantal leadership style such as humility, mandatory follow the value and principle and contribution to meaning. Being a transformative leader I will implement this leadership style to improve the ethical- based activity as well as at workplace to improve and highlight the relationship between the leader and employees. Furthermore, this leadership style help to connect with the employees individually. Though, the leader requires the ability to touch the hearts of others and help them identify their quality (Montuori and Donnelly 2018). However, in the organization, the transformative leaders also motivate the subordinates and employees to leave a legacy. By implementing the learning of transformative leadership style, will assist to achieve the organizational shared vision as this leadership concentrate on others instead of self. At the workplace, this leadership well work for employee welfare as well as enhance organizational profitability. Other than this lower the employee turnover rate, provide better quality and increase customer satisfaction.
It can be concluded that in the organization leadership is an important process which helps to influence the behaviour of others to accomplish a certain target. Through, the critical analysis of both the article it has been identified that the first article is explaining about the effectiveness of the servant leadership. On the other hand, the second article is highlighting the importance of the transformative leadership style which includes the attributes of six leadership style. However, both the leadership styles are distinct from each other but also some similarity such as both the leadership style work on ethics and moral standards. Moreover, the transformational leadership theory is relevant for both leadership styles. The transformational leadership theory encourages the idea of thinking beyond the self-interest as both the leadership follow this perspective. Practices of a servant and transformative leadership style are beneficial for the organization and employees. Though, there are is also the similarity in both the leadership styles that leaders first think about the employee's interest and requirement to achieve the organizational objectives. Both the article explains their perspective about the leadership style, as well as both the leadership styles, are different from the traditional leadership styles.
Berkovich, I. 2016. School leaders and transformational leadership theory: time to part ways?. Journal of Educational Administration, 54.5. 609-622.
Caldwell, C., Dixon, R.D., Floyd, L.A., Chaudoin, J., Post, J. and Cheokas, G. 2012. Transformative leadership: Achieving unparalleled excellence. Journal of Business Ethics, 10.2.175-187.
Chiara, M. and Bentein, K. 2016. Linking servant leadership to individual performance: Differentiating the mediating role of autonomy, competence and relatedness need satisfaction. The Leadership Quarterly, 27.1. 124-141.
Gandolfi,F and Stone, S . 2018. Leadership, Leaders Styles and Servant leadership Styles. Jounral of Management Research. 18.4.261296
Montuori, A. and Donnelly, G. 2018. Transformative leadership. Handbook of personal and organizational transformation. 319-350.
Seto, S. and Sarros, J.C. 2016. Servant Leadership Influence on Trust and Quality Relationship in Organizational Settings. International Leadership Journal, 8.3.
Shields, C.M. 2018. Transformative Leadership Primer. Journal of Transformative Leadership & Policy Studies, 7.2. .67-72.
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