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  • Subject Name : Nursing

Contents

Ethics statement

Proposed title

Context

Literature review

Proposed methodology

Ethics declaration

References

Ethics statement

This statement aims to put forward the essential goals of this research proposal to assist in the identification of its essential need in the curriculum.

Education is a term that is so commonly used in our everyday lives directly impacting the views, personal growth, and success. Therefore, it becomes essential for the education system to be highly inclusive, engaging, and well researched to provide the possible best in the formative years of life. Since the current curriculum design presents a multimodal composition for its working with different theoretical and conceptual models in action, a single comprehensive approach that is inclusive, engaging, and beneficial for the students belong to different classes is required.

The research proposal aims to provide a concise approach to achieve the same. Since the methodology used in the formulation of this study is based on pre-published data present in the public domain in form of datasets and literature in which it has been explicitly mentioned to have already gained the ethical approval, the research proposal does not require additional ethical approval for synthesis and analysis of the information. The research will be applied in a safe environment where the risks of the participants will be eliminated as the research will be conducted in accordance to the already established guidelines of the study setting, eliminating the need of ethical approval for the research conduct.

Further, since the analysis and the application of this research do not violate any ethical laws or involve special consent, it can be applied without special approval. This research also aims to benefit the students and enhance the capacity of the education curriculum through the established methods that have been tested, researched, and evaluated, their application in this proposal allows for the need of the ethical application.

Proposed Title

Building a relationship with high school kids- it impacts on learning outcomes and behaviour management

Context

This research has been designed in context with the school children belonging to classes 8 to 12 studying in stages 4-6 at the Merrylands High school, Western Sydney, Australia. The age group of students studying in these class group ranges from 12 years to 18 years. This research proposal has been designed in consideration of these students with the primary aim to enhance their engagement in the education by the development of an inclusive approach that allows teaching through different levels with a common mode of operations. Application of this approach can then be evaluated through the learning outcomes and the behavioural changes in the children. This research will be highly beneficial for students who usually struggle to cope with the present academic structure as this will help in the exploration and application of various engagement techniques. This will also assist in the evaluation of the change in behaviour and overall learning among the students.

Literature Review

As students transcend from junior school to middle and high school, learning and education demands see a significant change. There is an increased frequency of assignment submissions and tests demanding a need for improved attention, span and engagement. Comprehensive research by Martin and Evans (2018) argues that change in the academic curriculum imposes a demand for improved cognitive inputs by the students to cope effectively with this change.

Therefore, to assist the students, different theories and models that primarily focus on cognitive learning therapies and load reduction have been proposed. The primary focus of these models is to promote learning by reducing the cognitive load and enhancing the engagement of the children. The paper draws an essential focus on how increased cognitive load impairs the “motivation and engagement” in the children towards their education. It has been deduced and presented in the study that the tutor can unintentionally impose two forms of cognitive load on the children impairing their ability to engage, learn, and achieve the learning outcomes associated with the primary exercise.

The intrinsic cognitive load may arise based on the difficulty of the curriculum in students who developed a lag due to misunderstanding of the concepts and have failed to develop strong fundamentals of the subject. Whereas, an extrinsic cognitive load may arise with the representation of study material and the tutor-student relationship resulting in reluctance in the persuasion of that subject and impaired engagement and association with the same. Since every student is different and possesses individual intrinsic abilities to grasp, analyse, and apply the knowledge tutored, the cognitive load also varies among the class. Therefore, multiple models like load reduction and cognitive therapies are designed and suggested to apply in the curriculum to promote motivation and engagement in students to minimize this gap, promote understanding of the subject, and motivate the students towards learning.

Martin and Evans (2018) also argue that through the application of concepts like “guided discoveries” and “exploratory learning” the student engagement can further be enhanced. The paper identifies multiple studies and analysis to present the argument for why load reduction is essential for the engagement and improvement in the overall academic performance of the student. It has been asserted that the present models of teaching are highly prescriptive and can result in boredom and disengagement in the students presenting a direct connection between the amount of requisite guidance in the instructions by the tutor and the engagement and motivation in the student. Learning competence in students must, therefore, be enhanced by using various techniques, tools and models that can promote learner engagement and enhance their academic performance.

The study conducted in this research, among the school students of Sydney, also evidenced the need of same. The study involved 142 students belonging to the average age of 15.5 years. The students were assessed for academic outcomes like positive and negative motivation, academic buoyancy, positive and negative engagement, and achievements. To minimize the bias and for accurate analysis, assessment of intrinsic and extrinsic cognitive load was also validated for these students. The results revealed that the adoption of models that focus on load reduction was significantly associated with positive motivation, positive engagement, and higher achievement in the students marking a “novice to expert” transition.

The paper, therefore, highlights the significant needs of better learning models and techniques to assist the inclusion of students that possess a variable understanding of the subject and can excel with increased engagement, motivation, and better understanding by promoting communication, understanding their needs and effective teaching.

Another essential factor involved in effective teaching of the students is associated with behavioural management of students in the class. According to Paramita et al. (2020), management of the classroom behaviour and student engagement remains one of the major challenges associated with effective teaching. Behavioural management in class is essential as it dictates the attention span, student engagement, and overall understanding of the subject. The paper identifies that about 40% of Australian teachers spend 20% of their due teaching time for behavioural management in the class.

Several methods for behavioural management are applied in the classrooms. These include behaviour-specific praise for behaviour correction and self- monitoring. Other approaches include training and coaching of the teachers, application of tiered interventions, use of planning tools, and consultations. Various programs like a double-check, good behaviour games, positive classroom behaviour management, Supporting Early Adolescent Learning and Social Support (SEALS), PAX GBG and PAX GBG-Promoting Alternative Thinking Strategies (PATHS) etc. have also been widely applied. However, the primary goal of all these strategies remained common, that is, to reduced behavioural mismanagement in lass to promote positive attention, engagement, and learning achievements in the students.

The paper by Paramita et al. (2020), also argues that the most effective management approach is inclusive of “combination of multiple interventions and strategies than being effective individually”. The paper asserts that most of the studies conducted largely focus on management through proactive behavioural changes with just one study focusing on engagement model for behavioural change highlighting the impeding research gap in the two essential factors of education. The paper also highlights that the teachers “can and do adjust their teaching practices” for effective teaching and enhancing the learning outcomes, behavioural management and engagement of the students are essential to achieve excellence.

Paramita et al. (2020) also identify that most behavioural change and management studies associated with education and teaching focus on training sessions. These sessions possess a wide range of variety and are composed of discussions, workshops, in-class experimentations, and coaching sessions, Formative assessments and visual performance feedbacks are also popular choices for behavioural management in class. Studies based on Assessing School Settings Interactions of Students and Teachers (ASSIST) have also been incorporated in the analysis that highlight the importance of effective communication in student behaviour management and engagement in the classroom.

Proactive behaviour was observed in students with increased interactions with the teachers in the double-check program where interaction and communication between the tutor and the student were encouraged during training and coaching sessions. It is of essential significance that positive and negative interaction regarding behavioural management in students also impacts the efficacy of the management intervention asserting the significance of communication in tutor-student association for effective teaching.

Academic engagement and competency enhancement have been closely linked with behavioural management strategies like SEALS that is achieved through classroom structure modulations, use of group dynamics, increase of communication, and motivation among the students. The paper asserts the significant need for comprehensive behavioural management strategies that are inclusive and do not require combinatorial effort for success so that it can also result in the overall enhancement of the academic competency of the students.

Proposed Methodology

A hybrid approach with both primary and secondary methods will be used in the completion of this research. Assessment of different learning models and contemporary teaching techniques that are used in the current education curriculum for the middle school and the high school children will be evaluated. This will be done through rigorous literature analysis and information synthesis. Since different teaching models and learning theories are largely focused on a single parameter of either enhancing engagement or to minimize the incidences of misbehaviour through constructive interventions, a combined model for teaching and education to encompass both these parameters for students belonging to the classes 8-12 will be designed.

This model will provide an inclusive approach through enhancing the education engagement in children by promoting strong interpersonal relationships between the tutor and the student. Since the students will be voluntarily engaged in the learning practices, the behavioural management will be also aligned with teaching. It is proposed that better communication and strong interpersonal relationships between the tutor and the student will also assist in the essential understanding of the student needs and delivery of the same for enhanced student performance. The efficacy and applicability of this theoretical model will be tested and analyzed in the school environment under the pre-established education guidelines. The change in the behavioural patterns during learning, overall performance, and the improvement on the student performance will be evaluated in the study.

References

Martin, A. J., & Evans, P. (2018). Load reduction instruction: Exploring a framework that assesses explicit instruction through to independent learning. Teaching and Teacher Education, 73, 203-214.

Paramita, P. P., Anderson, A., & Sharma, U. (2020). Effective teacher professional learning on classroom behaviour management: A review of literature. Australian Journal of Teacher Education, 45(1), 5.

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