The question of the study is relevant to the field of psychology as personal, behavioural and environmental characteristics of behaviour determination. It is changed by showing concerns about health issues, education, and development. Hence, the behaviour gets changed with the changing attitude and geared towards understanding the psychological factors and specific behaviour changes of the participants in the study. Thus, the perspective, changing behaviour and understanding are the compliments of psychology and scientific investigation.
The study hypothesized that change in implicit attitude towards alcohol plays an important role in affecting drinking behaviour, a possible way to obtain a behavioural change is changing these implicit attitudes.
Yes, the hypothesis was very clear. It clearly states that implicit attitude could be the way to change the behaviour towards change in drinking behaviour. It was a clear statement that was made based on limited evidence as a starting point for further investigation. The proposition was made based on reasoning and without the assumption of its truth.
A literature review is the use of current knowledge that includes substantive findings and theoretical as well as methodological contributions towards the topic. In this method, secondary sources are used to work on new reports and original experimental works. The journal article and book reviews were taken to do the research. No, the literature review was not relevant. The study was published in the year 2010 and the sources that the author has taken are from 1991, which are considered to be very old publications. The research can't be done based on old publications because with time the data also gets changed and there are several limitations to the studies that have done earlier. The new researches have the chance that they have discussed the matters on which the material was lagging.
Hypothesis testing is the method of claiming the statement about the research. The testing part is done to know the value of the parameter on which the research should be accepted or rejected. There are three methods to test the hypothesis such as the confidence interval method, the traditional method, and the p-value method. In this research, the samples are selected to analyze the results. The traditional method was used in the research. In this method, the hypothesis is tested based on the Null hypothesis and alternative hypothesis. In the scenario of the null hypothesis, the statement has no difference between the specific value and a parameter. In the alternative hypothesis, it is the alternative to the null hypothesis and states that the difference exists between a parameter and a specific value.
Key findings of the research were:
The research was conducted by evaluating the conditioning procedure and the experiments were done on the participants. They showed that there is a strong negative impact on the attitude towards alcohol and the participants who consume less alcohol and the participants who were in the control condition. However, the effect was found in the research when the evaluation was done by conditioning paired alcohol-related cues with the negative pictures but not at that time when frowning faces were used. Hence, the new intervention tool to lessen the consumption of alcohol was evaluated effectively in this research as it helps in changing attitudes towards things or objects.
Yes, the author listed the limitations of the research findings. In the very first limitation, the author told that there are baseline differences in the experimental and control conditions that are used for experimentation in the research. The cautions in the study were not described as interpreting the ill effects of drinking behaviour. Majorly, the results were seen that the control group consumed less alcohol but more appropriate research could have been done if the sample size would have taken more for the study. The effects of drinking are not revealed in the study because the study group was knowing the reason to conduct the research. Secondly, the time frame was very less and fluctuating. At the initial stage, the experimental group was given less alcohol and slowly their amount was increased. So, the time was the limitation to know more about the behaviour of the experimental group. Thirdly, the sample size was mostly girl students. Although the sample size was appropriately divided into groups, the study did not help in analyzing more factors related to gender-based in alcohol consumption. For further analysis, both the women and men are to be noticed clearly to draw conclusions that can make the research more effective in making decisions. Hence, in future researchers, these points should be taken into consideration to reduce the limitations in a study.
Hence, this research is very useful in making decisions and for the formation of policies. The research has included all the age groups and evenly divided into groups. Both men and women were taken for the study. The study helped to analyze the behaviour of the experimental and the control group and concluded the results. This was the cohort study in which two groups were taken that were divided into equal members is exposed to alcohol and non-exposed to alcohol. This helps in the formation of policies and strategies in the clinical as well as day to day life. The behaviour is analyzed in this study and the research was done based on a literature review that had significant facts from the earlier studies.
Yes, the author used clear and easy language that the normal person can understand. Language plays an important role in the research as it is the base for the formation of policies and amendments in the system. The author made the use of acronyms and abbreviations to make the research writing clearer and more specific. All the points were covered and clearly explains the objective, aim, research question, the scope of the study, discussion, results, limitations, statistical analysis and conclusions in a well-explained manner.
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