Q1. It is impossible that we live in a world which is full of peace and people agree and comply with each other. The conflict can arise either with the customers or the employees as it is like a plague. Therefore, it can be avoided using five conflict management styles:
i. Accommodating: This style deals with keeping the others desires before the personal desire. This style believes in accommodating the other side view before personal view.
This form of conflict management is generally seen when the person wants to keep peace and therefore accepts the desire of other party. This style is also seen when the person thinks he is wrong and is persuaded to give in.
ii. Avoiding: This style of conflict management evades the conflict. This style basically avoids the situation and thus the conflict which can evolve.
This can be used when the person thinks that the matter is not worth to be discussed and thus ignore it whenever it comes. This can also be used when the person is scared that he might lose when the conflict will start.
iii. Compromising: This style of conflict management is to please both the parties involved in the conflict. Although, this type of conflict management does not completely satisfies the needs of any single party. There are both satisfied and unsatisfied part from the middle ground which is taken.
This style is appropriate when there is no chance but to find out the solution on an urgent basis. This style can be used when it is important to find any solution rather than searching for a great solution. For example, in a situation when the deadline is missing, it will be more important to complete the tasks rather than to solve the dispute with taking lot of time.
iv. Collaborating: This style of management deals with solving the dispute and satisfying both the parties involved in the conflict. It basically deals with satisfying the needs of both the parties. This style does not find the middle ground like in the case of compromising. This style tries to find a solution which is a win-win solution.
This style is appropriate when both parties needs to be satisfied completely and the problems of both the parties needs to be addressed.
v. Competing: This style is basically when the party is firm about his opinion and do not want to accept the view of other party. He is ready to compete and try to bring his view by opposing the other party view.
This style is appropriate when the party thinks that it is about his moral rights or if he thinks it is very important to bring his opinion or if he thinks the other party’s view point is inappropriate.
The above five conflict management style also mentions the situations when these should be adopted. This should be taken care because any style cannot fit any situation. For example, dealing with a customer, if the customer is enforcing a view, then it should be always better to avoid the trivial argument. This is because it would impact the customer experience and it is better to avoid rather than using other styles of conflict management.
Q2. Organisational culture can be defined as the values and conduct which impacts the social and psychological environment of an organisation. The three levels of organisational culture that is identified:
i. Artefacts and Behaviours: This level comprises of any tangible element or the element which is verbally identifiable. This includes architecture, design and layout of the organisation, furniture, elegance, dress code of employees, etc.
ii. Espoused Values: These are the stated rules of behaviour, values and conduct of an organisation. These are basically showed and written in posters in various locations of an organisation. The mission, values and goals are mentioned in the various documents of the organisation. For example, the mission and vision of an organisation helps to clarify the purpose of the business.
iii. Assumptions: This is the third level of organisational culture. This basically deals with the set of values which are embedded within the employees. It is taken as given and do not need proof. For example, the honesty, loyalty, these are embedded in the employees. There are some rules or values which are not discussed but it is understood by their own.
The alignment is very mandatory between these levels of organisational culture. Organisational culture can be a significant factor determining the success of any business. The great culture of an organisation does not happen by its own. It takes a lot of effort to build a great culture of any organisation. Also, organisational culture is more than paychecks and bonuses, gifts and incentives. There are many examples of organisations which are famous for their culture. Zappos is an organisation which always keeps right people to complement its culture. It keeps employees who are committed to the company rather than the employees who are basically for collecting paychecks. The company cares about the quality of people rather than the money it is taking to hiring the people. The other example is og Walt Disney who gives magical experience to its employees. The company has unparalleled culture and heritage, wonderful and creative environment which sets them apart from other companies.
Q.3. Douglas McGregor used Maslow’s theory of motivation as the basis for his model. The two theories created by McGregor were named as Theory X and Theory Y. These were the theories related to human work motivation. The work of McGregor was in the motivation theory along with the Maslow’s theory. The theory of X and Y was based on the model of Maslow. Maslow created the model of hierarchy of needs. Theory X deals with the significance of supervision, rewards and penalties. Whereas, theory Y deals with the importance of job satisfaction. Both the theories are aimed to boost the employees’ productivity and motivation.
Maslow’s created hierarchy of needs. It consists of physiological need which is the lowest level in the hierarchy of needs. Then comes the safety needs followed by, love needs and esteem needs. The highest level in the hierarchy of needs is self-actualisation need. Maslow highlighted that an individual is motivated by the level he has not reached. He tries to improve on the levels and try to reach self- actualisation level. However, he also portrayed that an individual cannot reach the highest level without fulfilling the other lower levels of needs in the hierarchy. The Y theory also deals with the highest level of need, that is, esteem needs and self- actualisation.
Q.4. There are many advantages and disadvantages for an organisation operating in a globalised world. Some of the advantages are:
1. Wider Talent Pool: Globalisation increases the scope of more talent bunch of candidates for the organisation from all over the globe. This can enhance the productivity and profitability of an organisation.
2. Novel ideas: Globalisation also increases the scope of new ideas due to cultural diversity. Since, globalisation will lead to different individuals working from different locations with variety of ethics and beliefs. This diversity can add as a positive impact on organisations.
3. Larger Markets: Globalisation opens the range of opportunities for the organisations and can contribute to the profitability of organisations.
4. Earnings Changes: With globalisation, there has been an exchange in the workers. The high skilled workers are transferred to countries with lack of skills employees. Similarly, country with higher wages also employed cheaper workers from other nations. This led to lower wages across the countries which benefitted the organisations.
Some of the disadvantages of globalisation on organisations are:
1. Possibility of IP theft: There is a chance that if a company is working outside its domestic nation, the intellectual property can be stolen and copied by the other country.
2. Problems in Supply Chain: It is possible that with globalisation, there could be increased disruption in the supply chain and the workers can be working in unsafe conditions.
3. Corruption: There is the possibility for corruption in the countries due to globalisation. However, this depends on the country.
Globalisation creates opportunities for the organisation as well as the economy. It can help to increase the economic growth of an economy. The major opportunities for the organisations are that due to globalisation, they will be exposed to wide range of market, knowledge, technologies and workforce. The customer base for the organisations would increase if they are exposed to the world. This will further enhance the sales volume, employment and growth of the organisation. The acquisition of capital and resources will boost the economy as a whole.
The most common benefits of globalisation is that it would increase the demand of products supplied by the organisation as the customer base has been increased. There will be low costs of labour and other inputs of production. There will be many challenges which the organisation will face if globalisation is there. Some of them are ethical practices, organisational culture, infrastructure, legal and regulatory structure, public relations, leadership and technology. These challenges can help to create opportunities and will further enhance the productivity and profitability of organisations.
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