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Anatomy and Physiology for Health Professionals

[Task A] – Creating an anatomical dialogue for non-health professionals-

Hypertension is a medical term which is used for high blood pressure (BP). The pressure applied by blood to inner walls of arteries is called blood pressure. The higher the pressure, the more will be the blood pressure. There are two types of high BP, one is essential high BP which is found in mostly adults and develops with age. Another is secondary high BP which develops due to any other medical issue. There is no specific symptom of high BP, but it silently damages the other body parts, such as heart, blood vessel, lungs, brain and kidney. Due to this reason, it is also called as ‘silent killer’. Although it has no symptoms, but it can be cured by determining that patient is in safe or danger zone. Normal blood pressure of a human being is below 120/80, which is called safe zone. When this increases to 130/85, then doctors warn the patient to stay safe by changing their lifestyle. This is called warning zone and has double risk of developing heart disease. Moreover, if blood pressure increases to 140/90 or above, then the patient is in danger zone. BP level at 180/110 or more started showing symptoms, such as headache, nose bleeding, anxiety, and shortness of breath. The reason of increase in BP can be high salt diet, high consumption of alcohol, stress, consumption of caffeine, or increased body weight. High BP can be treated by changing the lifestyle, that is by losing weight, doing more exercise, low salt intake, avoiding alcohol or taking some prescribed medicines (High Blood Pressure | Hypertension. 2020).

[Task B] – Reconstruction of your anatomical dialogue for a health professional-

Hypertension or arterial hypertension is a common worldwide disease among humans. When the blood flow into the arteries, it exerts a pressure against arteries wall. Muscular walls of arteries get either dilated or constricted and cause low or high flow of blood pressure respectively. The pathophysiology of hypertension includes the damage of renal pressure natriuresis, which occurs due to the impaired renal function or improper hormone activation or extreme activation of sympathetic nervous system. Renal pressure natriuresis act as the feedback system in which high BP encourages an increase in water and sodium evacuation by kidney (Hall et al., n.d.). Major risk factors of hypertension include coronary heart disease, congestive heart failure, peripheral vascular disease, end-stage renal disease, and stroke. Hypertension can be of two types, either primary or secondary. Approximately 90-95% of cases are of primary hypertension, and 5-10% of secondary hypertension. Secondary hypertension is caused by any other medical condition that affect arteries, kidney, endocrine system and heart. High BP has usually no symptoms, it can be diagnosed by regular blood pressure check-up by help of stethoscope and blood pressure cuff. High BP readings of systolic is 140 and diastolic is 90 or more. Readings more than 180/120 are categorized in danger condition and the patient require urgent medical care. High BP is caused due to obesity, high alcohol intake, rich salt diet, stress or caffeine. Generally, to treat hypertension, it is recommended to change the lifestyle. But some people need medications to control high BP. These medications include beta blockers, calcium channel blockers (CCBs), diuretics, and angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) (Johannes & Mann, 2020).

[Task C] – Response to questions-

Stimulus 1: What is one key learning outcome that you have gained through completing Task A and Task B in this assessment task?

By completing assessment task, A & B, it is clear to understand the rationale and process for diagnosis and treatment of hypertension. Hypertension is a common issue among most of the adults, so it is important to know how to diagnose and treat this condition, followed by precautionary measures. High BP can be diagnosed by regular blood pressure check-up by help of stethoscope and blood pressure cuff. Readings more than 180/120 are categorized in danger condition and the patient require urgent medical care. Preventive measures to treat hypertension include less alcohol consumption, less salt intake in body, regular exercise to reduce stress or some specific medications like CCB, ARB, diuretics or beta blockers (Obara, 2019).

Stimulus 2: With consideration to the field in which you wish to work in the future, how will you use this learning to enhance your future practice as a health professional?

In future, it is my wish to work as a nurse and provide best possible care to the patients. As discussed earlier, hypertension is a common disorder in most of the adults and it is the basic duty of a nurse to check and monitor the blood pressure of patient. The management and prevention of high BP is necessary to prevent several other diseases, such as stroke, renal dysfunction, and ischemic heart disease (Kokubo & Iwashima, 2015). Overall, this learning will enhance my future practice of nursing health profession, as it provides all important information of occurrence, diagnosis, treatment of a very common medical issue called hypertension.

References for Pathophysiology of Hypertension

Hall, J.E., Granger, J.P, Jones, D.W., & Hall, M.E. (n.d.). Chapter-24: Pathophysiology of hypertension. Hurst's The Heart. Retrieved September 03, 2020, from https://accessmedicine.mhmedical.com/content.aspx?bookid=2046

High Blood Pressure | Hypertension. (2020, August 24). Retrieved September 03, 2020, from https://medlineplus.gov/highbloodpressure.html

Johannes, F., & Mann, M. (2020). Patient education: High blood pressure in adults (Beyond the Basics). Retrieved September 03, 2020, from https://www.uptodate.com/contents/high-blood-pressure-in-adults-beyond-the-basics

Kokubo, Y., & Iwashima, Y. (2015). Higher Blood Pressure as a Risk Factor for Diseases Other Than Stroke and Ischemic Heart Disease. Hypertension,66(2), 254-259. doi:10.1161/hypertensionaha.115.03480

Obara, K. (2019). Clinical Investigation of Portal Hypertension. Singapore: Springer Singapore.

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