In Jan 2019, in Kenya a person equipped with gun and volatile products in a hotel compound in Nairobi. He killed around twenty-one people in that assail and when the armed men targeted the DusitD2 he killed an American and Briton people (Asongu et al. 2018). According to the surveillance footage, one of the assailants self-detonated a suicide vest in the lobby of the lodge departure flutter smoke as people fled. According to the authority of Kenya, the attackers were terrorist and around seven hundred public were securely withdrawn safely from the violence. There were 16 Kenyans, one Briton and 1 American and 3 unknown people of African region as well as around twenty-eight people have been hospitalized.
The attack was coordinated from the unknown gunmen at complex and they trapped the people at different parts of buildings. According to the security camera footage, there were three armed men and they were wearing in dark clothes and their face was exposed, moving in the complex (Cannon and RutoPkalya2017). This terrorist attack and other terrorist attack have impacted on Kenya's tourism industry. It has been observed that terrorism and insecurity is the factor which is accountable for the industry poor performance over the last decade. On average, there are 60 attacks each year which done by the various groups. However, tourism is a very significant part of Kenya's economy as it offers huge employment to its citizen.
Overview of tourism and hospitality activity
The tourism is a communal, economic and cultural occurrence that includes the movements of individuals to nations or spaces outside their usual environments for their individual or professional reason. The individual are known as visitor or tourists and tourism deals with their actions. Various countries implement tourism expenses. The tourism activities comprise of lodging services, foodstuff and beverages facility, entertainment services, transportation services and tour services. When we consider the tourism it is essential to consider the term hospitality. It is a business which welcomes people to various places and make them relaxed and free. (Camilleri2018).
In simple, words the hospitality industry is the mixture of the accommodation, food and beverages, collectively developing the largest segment of the industry. The tourism activities are linked with the travel planning and hospitality activities are associated with the location where individual meet up like a bistro, casino, conference centre or shopping centre. The positive impact of tourism and hospitality activity is that it gives a boom to the economy of the country and robust the foreign exchange. It also enhances income and GDP growth. This industry also provides the different employment opportunities are able to create local products. The tourism usually inserts the money into the society that directly leads to secondary economic development as well. Moreover, there are impact of this industry such the property values increases (Bramwell 2015). The hospitality and tourism business relies on accessibility of leisure time and disposable income.
Critical study of identified legal and regulatory concern
Analyze data of the activist attacks over several years and tourism coming to determine an average effect. The terrorist attack has reduced visitors around 2508 visitors per years. It also impacts on the loss of employment opportunities and social cost of lives and job lives. Moreover, it has impacted on various people such as hotel operators, taxi drivers, food vendors etc. and some business completely depends on the tourist such as the hotel operators. It has been observed that there are many people who are interested to come to Kenya but due to the terrorism tourism sector suffer as operational cost increased (Maogoto 2016).Following are the serious study of known legal and norms concern:
The increase of activist threat from the Al-Shabaab Kenya has obtained the militaristic and security concentrated approach against terrorism.
In Kenya, to cumplusory follow the norms of law and rights of human as thecountries are fighting with terrorism
The civil culture has a significant position to participate in countering violent extremism.
It has been observed that the government's hard work to oppose this influence and increasing in terrorism has given the result in extensive police authority which utilize to commit human rights mistreatment and quiet government’s critics. The key anti-terrorism law, the 2012 preventions of violence act offer not only an unclear meaning of violence, greatly enlarge police authority and enables the condition to generate a list of a supposed radical organization without due procedure. Moreover, it has been observed that government and civilization were leading alleged reason of aggressive radicalism (Burchardt and Gulati2018). The civilization is a key instrument for political recruitment in Kenya. It also a type of patronage leads to the ethnic equalities in the allocation of governments’ work and other chance. This is caused due to the understood association between Islam and violence.
Following are the policy objectives are as follow:
Prevent: To prevent people become attackers or terrorist or supporting terrorism.
Pursue: To prevent terrorist attacks (Wirtz 2017).
Protect: To reinforcethe defence against a activist attack
Prepare: To reduce the influence of the terrorist assail
Other policy objectives are as follow:
Create the needed capacity and take part in developing and implementing against the terror extremism program to promote the inclusion of citizens.
Develop the active platform to include stakeholder in counter violent extremism program at a country level and make sure of their effective participation.
Promote the reorientation of country antiterrorism campaign to make sure that industry and agencies are accountable for counter violent extremism taken out operations within the ambit of human rights and rule of law.
Get employ in research to community priorities against the terrorist attack and utilize the data to develop interactive empowerment program and conduct policy advocacy(Mabera2016).
Redevelop the nation's antiterrorism program to identify the structural drivers of radicalization and local recruitment for example shortage of employment for youths or social inequalities.
The stakeholders of the hospitality and tourism business are national governments, local governments, tourism associations, business travellers,visitors, sites and attractions etc. The important principles of stakeholders are as follow:
Need of identifying stakeholders legitimate interests who will be utilized the procedure by an organization ( Pérez-Pineda, Alcaraz, and Colón 2017).
The second principle indicates the requirements for communication among the organization and its stakeholders.
The third principle indicates the idea that there can be a difference with the involvements of stakeholders in the firm. On the other hand, the organization may have a relationship with some stakeholders; other stakeholders are approached in informal ways.
Another principle related the aspect of respecting human rights which may affect the present and future activities in hotel and tourism organization.
It is important for the hotel and tourism industry to involve all stakeholders in anti-terrorism policy to mitigates its impact from the industry and improves the business. Moreover, Kenya's hospitality and tourism industry may obtain the possible for stakeholder management such as reactive, defensive, accommodative and proactive. According to the stakeholder's potential for threat and cooperation the industry can decide the strategy for their stakeholder such as leading, collaborating, defending, involving, educating and monitoring. There are two important variables for the decision on industry stakeholder , first is there is a probability of threatening an organization and there is a probability of cooperating with the organization (Pizam and Tasci2019).These two variable show the ability of stakeholder for collaboration and threat in a particular matter facing the company.
According to the policy objective, it is required to enhance the security and observing approach. This can achieve by involving the combination of techniques such as focusing on surveillance and bomb detection system. It is important because there are certain limitations of security forces and physical barriers (Mogire, Mkutu and Alusa 2017) The tourism and hospitality industry of Kenya need more invest on security and obtain a national strategy against violent attacks and can apply through the national counterterrorism centre. It can adapt and apply them both strong and flexible power rule to protect from the exterior assail. The hospitality industry authorities can run the programs against terrorism as it can include deradicalisation and rehabilitation projects for a terrorist.
The hotel and tourism company of Kenya need to be more aware of the terror attack so they save the more civilian through the operations. The hospitality industry needs to on hand with the security apparatus such ambulance, evacuation assists, medical staff and personnel. The companies can coordinate with different agencies to protect from the terror attack. However, the industry needs to improve the immediate coordination among the National Police Service, National Intelligence Service and Kenya's Defense armed forces. Furthermore, due to the number of attack authorities have to enhance the intelligence as they want to efficiently want to fight against the terrorist attack ( Botha 2015). Kenya's hospitality and tourism attack need to put more hard work in a gathering, disseminating and applying intelligence so that successfully protect and oppose the future terror attacks.
Asongu, S.A., Tchamyou, V.S., Asongu, N. and Tchamyou, N.P., 2018.Fighting terrorism in Africa: Benchmarking policy harmonization. Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, 492, pp.1931-1957.
Botha, A., 2015. Radicalisation to Terrorism in Kenya and Uganda: Political Socialisation Perspective. Perspectives on Terrorism, 9(5), 2-14.
Bramwell, B., 2015. Theoretical activity in sustainable tourism research. Annals of Tourism Research, 54, 04-218.
Burchardt, D. and Gulati, R., 2018. International counter-terrorism regulation and citizenship-stripping laws—reinforcing legal exceptionalism. Journal of Conflict and Security Law, 23(2), 203-228.
Camilleri, M.A., 2018. the tourism industry: An overview. In Travel marketing, tourism economics and the airline product(pp. 3-27). Springer, Cham.
Cannon, B.J. and RutoPkalya, D., 2017. Why al-Shabaab Attacks Kenya: Questioning the Narrative Paradigm. Terrorism and Political Violence, 1-17.
Mabera, F., 2016.Kenya's foreign policy in context (1963–2015). South African Journal of International Affairs, 23(3), pp.365-384.
Maogoto, J.N., 2016. Battling terrorism: legal perspectives on the use of force and the war on terror.London: Routledge.
Mogire, E., Mkutu, K. and Alusa, D., 2017. Policing Terrorism in Kenya. Security Governance in East Africa: Pictures of Policing from the Ground, 79.
Pérez-Pineda, F., Alcaraz, J.M. and Colón, C., 2017.Creating sustainable value in the hospitality industry: a (critical) multi-stakeholder study in the Dominican Republic. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 25(11), pp.1633-1649.
Pizam, A. and Tasci, A.D., 2019. Experience: expanding the concept of servicescape with a multi-stakeholder and multi-disciplinary approach (invited paper for ‘luminaries' special issue of the International Journal of Hospitality Management). International Journal of Hospitality Management, 76, 25-37.
Wirtz, J.J., 2017. Counter-terrorism via Counter-proliferation.In War on Terrorism (pp. 23-34).London: Routledge.
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