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Vehicle Powertrain and Dynamics

Executive Summary of Vehicle Powertrain and Dynamics

The achievement of the battery operated electric powertrain so called BEV is dependent on the technology advancement of battery . In order to lessen vehicle exhausted greenhouse gases (GHGs) on a large scale, the consideration should be enlarge for the GHGs production, fuel removal , purification, power generation, and end-of-life phases of a vehicle or length of span assessment , by adding into the actual working phase. The very first battery electric battery operated electric powertrain are going to use in large scale is lower segment car because the usage of this cars are always higher. The study in this paper is going to conduct on Petrol and diesel powered passenger mini vehicles, compared with battery electric vehicles from the same classes.

Objective of Vehicle Powertrain and Dynamics

  • The main objective is to estimate the Co2 production of both vehicles by life cycle method.
  • To find out the life time operating cost of both vehicles.
  • To Study the load transfer in electric vehicle.

Literature review of Vehicle Powertrain and Dynamics

The awareness regarding the Climate change going to increase if we consider about last few years. The law which has been made towards the greenhouse gases emission is in use very strict ways. More concentration is given to the Transport industries because by observation it has found that road transportation is grooving in few decades and also grooving the GHG production. It has been consider by main sector [1] These studies are concentered on the internal combustion engines [2-6].There are lots of research has been done on the latest power train such as battery electric vehicles [2–6], hybrid electric vehicles [3,6].

The Co2 emission is also produces by several factors like, during manufacturing of parts and by burning of the fuel.

1. According to the data base of the lifecycle assessment which is done by japan ,they calculated same amount of co2 production for both BEV and Gasoline or diesel engine parts like Body or chassis, tires etc.[7].

2. The amount of Co2 produced by the Transmission and engine parts also calculated based on the lifecycle assessment which is done by japan JLSA [7]

3. The amount of co2 produced by the production of inventor and motor is done by the CO2 equivalent values (kgCO2-eq) as per this equation the values of CO2 calculated. [12]

4. The Co2 emission of battery is calculated by the taking the consideration of several factor like, such as production of casing, types of electrodes, Types of Batteries and Size of batteries. [8-11],

Table.1 Review results of literature about Life Cycle Assessment for battery production.

Part Name Reference


Referenced Data of CO2

Emission [kg-CO2]

Apply to

Chassis parts

(Body, tires, interior, etc.)[7]



(76.8 % of overall production)


Gasoline engine and




(23.2 % of overall production)


Diesel engine and transmission[7]



(177 kg-CO2/kWh _ 35.8 kWh)


Electric drive unit parts

(Elec. parts)




(177 kg-CO2/kWh _ 35.8 kWh)










Table 2. The amount of CO2 emissions of vehicle MANUFACTURING phase.

The amount of CO2 emissions in the phase of fuel production and combustion for ICV (GE and DE) was obtained by the equation below:

CO2,ICV(FP, FC) = (CFFP + CFFC)/EICV_LD………………………. (1)


CO2, ICV (FP, FC) = the amount of CO2 emissions in the phase of fuel production and combustion[kg-CO2],

CFFP = CO2 emission factor of fuel production [kg-CO2/L],

CFFC = CO2 emission factor of fuel combustion [kg-CO2/L],

EICV = fuel efficiency of ICV [km/L],

LD = lifetime driving distance [km].

The amount of CO2 emissions in the phase of electric power generation for BEV was obtained

with the following equation:

CO2,BEV(EG) = CFEG/EBEV_LD……………………. (2)


CO2, BEV (EG) = the amount of CO2 emissions in the phase of electric power generation


CFEG = CO2 emission factor of electric power generation [kg-CO2/kWh],

EBEV = Electric efficiency of BEV [km/kWh].

  • Lifecycle Costs

By running the vehicles on road for 240000 km for Internal combustion engine and data were recorded . and assumed zero for this span of period. The maintenance and repair cost has been calculated for as 120000 kms. and then after it has become double. Fuel cost is totally dependent on the fuel economy and cost of the fuel. Fixed costs includes the tax on fuel, Insurance cost and some other cost as well. [13]

  • Depreciation cost.

The lifetime cycle of ICE is comparatively 10 % lower than the electric operated vehicles. But it can be higher than the shown in the studies. In this research the kilometers driven by the car 16000 kilometers for seventeen years. [13]

  • Maintenance and repair

In comparative study of maintenance and repair of ICE and BEV it has been found that, For same segment of cars the ICE car has 30 % higher cost then the EV .This battery has to be replaced once after 7 years of the life cycle of the car. [13], The battery replacement is not a basic part of normal maintenance and repair cost. If we include the price of the battery replacement then the cost of lifecycle is higher than the ICE .

Mazumdera*, M.M.Al Emran Hassana , M.Ektesabia , A.Kapoora has done the analysis on the mass transfer in the battery operated vehicle. BEV has maximum weight in the car possess by battery weight. So its placing is very important. According to the position of the battery vehicle CG and performance is vary. They had taken three layouts for the battery and controller. They had simulated the example in the matlab Simulink and find the observation regarding the C.G.


Battery position

At Front Bay of the vehicle

At mid area (Under the seats)

At rear of the vehicle (Boot)

Motor Position Inside

the Rear Wheel Inside

the Rear Wheel Inside

the Rear Wheel

Controller Position

Rear of the vehicle (Boot)

Rear of the vehicle (Boot)

Front of the vehicle (Engine Bay)

Mass Distribut ion Ratio

60:40 ( Longitudinal, F/R) 50:50 (Lateral)

48:52 ( Longitudinal, F/R)50:50 (Lateral)

36:64 ( Longitudinal, F/R)50:50 (Lateral)

CG position, Long.

963 mm (From Front Axle)

1260 mm (From Front Axle)

1570 mm (From Front Axle)

CG position, Lateral

700 mm (From Both Side)

700 mm (From Both Side)

700 mm (From Both Side)

CG position, Vertical

570 mm (From Ground)

546 mm (From Ground)

573 mm (From Ground)

Results of Vehicle Powertrain and Dynamics

The research has been done for the emission of the Co2 from the vehicle and found that the production of battery from the EV is (177 kg-CO2/kWh). The studies has been done on the distance travelled by the both vehicle. Both the vehicle travel for equal distance. And it has been found that up to 60,779 km the Co2 emission of battery vehicle is higher. If the distance traveled beyond the 60,779 km then the emission of ICE is higher than the EV .

Now we compare the studies of manufacturing the chassis is same of each type of vehicles. This analysis is done by the consideration of vehicle weight proportionate and found that the small passenger car can emit the 4219 Kg Co2. If taking the account of the weight of the vehicle engine and transmission of vehicle, then the co2 production is observed 241 Kg. Now if we do addition of the of Co2 emission then it has become 1539 [ 7 ].Now if we include the emission produced by the production and motor is 1070 Kg co2 and for inverter is 641 KgCo2.The Co2 emission is produced by burning the 1 liter gasoline and diesel engine is 2.28 kg-CO2/L and 2.62 kg-CO2/L.[14]

At the last the emission is produced by the and specially the co2 is produced by the some miscellaneous process which is used for their recycling can be illustrated as Shredding and sorting 24 [kg-CO2, the Co2 production by the transport is 4 Kgco2 and for the landfilling purpose 38 Kg co2]

It is expected that M&R costs will be lower for BEVs during their lifetime. Maintenance and repair cost is considerably high in ICE because the EV has no less moving parts .The life of the motor which is used is very high.[13]

After doing the analysis the vehicle is travel in the circular motion and its radius has measured and found that in layout 1 the vehicle gets oversteer. This is happening because of the all weight of battery comes on the front wheel so when we move the vehicle it gets slip on the fronttires.in second layout the vehicle nearly follow the prescribe path and in third layout the vehicle gets under steering because of the load on the rear wheel.[15]

Conclusion on Vehicle Powertrain and Dynamics

In this study of the Co2 emission of internal combustion engines and Battery operated vehicles.

The various aspects of cause of emission has studied and various results has been came out like ,

The emission of the Co2 is higher in the internal combustion engine if we consider only the fuel which is supplied to the vehicle. If we consider the whole life cycle then the emission of the Co2 is higher in the battery operated electric vehicle. If we consider the life cycle cost then the BEV has higher life cycle cost then ICE. Though the M and R cost is less n the BEV. This cost is totally dependent on the cost of batteries. In this research paper we had done discussion on the best position of the battery in the car. Because for stability of the car the center of gravity p play a major role. And it is observed in the experiment that the I layout 2 the battery place at the center and because of this the car follow the prescribe parts then other layout. There are lots of research has been carried out to produce the effective battery .This batteries are available at relatively very low cost and produce very less emission. Ev cars can be used very effective way where there is electricity production is done by the non-renewable sources.

References for Vehicle Powertrain and Dynamics

Global reduction in CO2 Emissions from Cars: A Consumer’s Perspective—Policy Recommendations for Decision Makers. Available online: https://www.fia.com/sites/default/files/global_reduction_in_co2_emissions_from_cars-_a_consumers_perspective_0.pdf

Ellingsen, L.A.W.; Singh, B.; Strømman, A.H. The size and range e_ect: Lifecycle greenhouse gas emissions of electric vehicles. Environ. Res. Lett. 2016, 11, 054010.

Mayyas, A.; Omar, M.; Hayajneh, M.; Mayyas, A.R. Vehicle’s lightweight design vs. electrification from life

cycle assessment perspective. J. Clean Prod. 2017, 167, 687–701.

Messagie, M. Life Cycle Analysis of the Climate Impact of Electric Vehicles. European Federation for Transport and Environment AISBL. Available online: https://www.transportenvironment.org/sites/te/files/publications/TE%20-%20draft%20report%20v04.pdf

Ou, X.; Zhang, X.; Zhang, X.; Zhang, Q. Life Cycle GHG of NG-Based Fuel and Electric Vehicle in China. Energies 2013, 6, 2644–2662.

Sharma, R.; Manzie, C.; Bessede, M.; Crawford, R.H.; Brear, M.J. Conventional, hybrid and electric vehicles for Australian driving conditions. Part 2: Life cycle CO2-e emissions. Transport. Res. C Emerg. Technol. 213, 28, 63–73.

JLCA (Life Cycle Assessment Society of Japan). LCA Database 2015FY, 4th ed.; JLCA (Life Cycle Assessment Society of Japan): Tokyo, Japan, 2015.

. Zackrisson, M.; Avellán, L.; Orlenius, J. Life cycle assessment of lithium-ion batteries for plug-in hybrid

electric vehicles–Critical issues. J. Clean Prod. 2010, 18, 1519–1529.

Majeau-Bettez, G.; Hawkins, T.R.; Strømman, A.H. Life cycle environmental assessment of lithium-ion and nickel metal hydride batteries for plug-in hybrid and battery electric vehicles. Environ. Sci. Technol. 2011, 45, 4548–4554.

Amarakoon, S.; Smith, J.; Segal, B. Application of Life-Cycle Assessment to Nano Scale Technology: Lithium-ion Batteries for Electric Vehicles; United States Environmental Protection Agency: Washington, DC, USA, 2013.

Ellingsen, L.A.W.; Majeau-Bettez, G.; Singh, B.; Srivastava, A.K.; Valøen, L.O.; Strømman, A.H. Life Cycle

Assessment of a Lithium-Ion Battery Vehicle Pack. J. Ind. Ecol. 2013, 18, 113–124.

Hawkins, T.; Singh, B.; Majeau-Bettez, G.; Strømman, A.H. Comparative Environmental Life Cycle Assessment of Conventional and Electric Vehicles. J. Ind. Ecol. 2012, 17, 53–64

Delucchi, M. A. and Lipman, T. E. (2001). An analysis of the retail and lifecycle cost of battery-powered electric vehicles Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment 6(6): 371-404.

Kainou, K. Recommendation of Draft Revised Standard Calorific Value and Carbon Emission Factor for Fossil Fuel Energy Sources in Japan: 2013 FY Revised Standard Calorific Value and Carbon Emission Factor; RIETI (The Research Institute of Economy, Trade and Industry): Tokyo, Japan, 2014.

Mazumdera*, M.M.Al Emran Hassana , M.Ektesabia , A.Kapoora, Performance analysis of EV for different mass distributions to ensure safe handling, Advances in Energy Engineering (ICAEE 2011), Energy Procedia 14 (2012) 949 – 954

Remember, at the center of any academic work, lies clarity and evidence. Should you need further assistance, do look up to our Science Assignment Help

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