Managers in the organizations many times face difficulty in making decisions. The decision making of managers relies on justice, care, utility and principles of rights. If the managers make decisions there are five ways to accomplish the decisions. They pass unaided decisions (Hummel 2018). When a manager makes a decision he can advise it with several people and take his own decision. Judging people in the organization shows a persons assessment of evaluating the other person. Judging people in organizations shows the behaviour and culture of the organization. Showing opinion about something and sharing views on something is different from judging people in the organization. Without analyzing people, evaluating their work and appreciating them, keeping your views on them is called as judging people (Reason 2016). In the process of decision making, it is impossible for a manager to avoid judging people because they influence the decision making of manager by providing their irrelevant views on employees and the work assigned to them, this makes a hurdle in the decision-making process for a manager. , as well as leaders, are always responsible for the decision making of the organization they possess the authority to stop the people from doing unwanted and unauthorized things. The decision-making process in an organization should always be quick and effective for other employees (Reisenzein 2017). Employees of the organization sometimes are judged on the basis of status and position in the company and these types influential things affect a managers decision. Managers are held answerable for the misdeed and misbehaviour because the employees are working under their team leaders and managers. This misbehaviour is sometimes created by the judgmental attitude of people towards each other.
The aim of researchers was to accumulate the emotions of a person on two factors one is psychological arousal and a cognitive label.
Schacter and Singers (1962) Two Factor theory stated that emotions are always based on two factors psychological arousal and cognitive labels. According to the theory, whenever the emotions are felt a psychological stimulation occurs and the person finds an instant environment to use the emotional signs to label the psychological stimulations. Sometimes emotions are felt before we think about them. Sometimes this kind of things can cause misinterpretation of thoughts and ideas with emotions based on body and minds psychological state (Shaked, and Clore 2017). This happens because when the brain does not know why it feels an emotion, it relies on the external environment for stimulation for signals on how to label the signals.
The author has used and performed a study which tested how people used signals in the environment to understand the psychological difference. Their theories were
When a person feels the emotion of stimulation for which he has no immediate explanation. Then they will tag their feeling and explain them as the cognition state available to them (Dror, 2017). Another hypothesis they developed says that whenever a person feels emotion as a state of arousal for which they have a suitable explanation, then their feelings will be alternative cognitive available. The other one was if a person put into a situation, in which he has felt emotional in past, then they will react emotionally and emotions only if he is in a state of psychological stimulation.
The researchers used participants in this experiment and they were injected with a drug to test their eyesight. They were injected with epinephrine which causes an increase in blood pressure, heart rate and respiration. There were four conditions where participants are randomly placed.one is epinephrine informed, the second one is epinephrine ignorant, the third one is epinephrine is misinterpreted and control gap. Each group is explained with the side effect of the injected drug. The first group of epinephrine informed was informed that their hands will shake, the heart will pound and face will get warm. These side effects will explain their psychological change. The second group of epinephrine ignorant participants were not informed about the symptoms of the experiments on them (Richard and Harvey 2017). The third group of epinephrine misinterpreted was informed that they will have headaches, slightly itching and their feets will go numb. These side effects will explain their psychological change. The control group was injected with placebo and they will have no side effects on them. This group has no change in emotion of label and psychological change. After the injection injected, the confederate interacted with the students, they were either angry or joyful. The experimenters observed the whole scene in the mirror and evaluated the participants state on the basis of three categories. The participants heart rate was checked afterwards and their feedbacks were taken through a questionnaire.
In the results, the researchers found that the effects of drugs and confederate were different on different people in different condition. Their ranking of euphoria from high to low was noticed as follow the first one was epinephrine misinterpret, the second one was epinephrine ignorant, the third one was placebo and the last one was epinephrine informed. But in the anger condition, it was as follows the first one was epinephrine ignorant, the second one was placebo and the last was epinephrine informed. Both the results said that the body of the participants felt nothing this statement goes for the participants who have no explanation why their body felt like this, this is because they are very vulnerable to the confederate. These findings and results were considered as the support of the researchers hypothesis.
Schacter and Singers theory has also put to criticism. The other researchers Marshall andZimbardo found that the participants in the two factors theory were no more possible to act overjoyed when asked a euphoric partner when they were uncovered to a neutral confederate.in another study by Maslach, the enthralling suggestion was used to make stimuli instead of injecting epinephrine. The results proposed that unexplained physical stimuli used to generate more negative emotions does not matter what kind of confederate conditions sthey were exposed to (Jordan, et al, 2018). There are many criticisms to these hypotheses by many researchers one of the criticisms to the theory said that two-factor theories focus on automatic nervous systems and gives no importance to the emotional process of nervous aside from the role of cognitive factors.
The aim of evaluating this theory is to identify the stress, the stressors and the situations of emotions of a person.
Appraisal theory refers to theory applied in psychology in which emotions are extracted from our valuation of events which results in specific reaction to different people. More importantly, the evaluation of a situation results in an emotional response which is going to be based on that response (Ellsworth 2013). Appraisal theories are the theories of emotions which show the peoples emotions result from their explanations and interpretations of the circumstances they have faced even if their psychological appraisal is absent.
Richard Lazarus continued with the research on the theory of appraisal where he continued to research on this subject. In the research, he found two important factors of the study of the cognitive aspect of emotions in which the first one was the nature of cognition. The first emotion explained underlies of the emotional reactions and the second emotion explained and the second was the determining predecessor situations of this cognition. These two aspects were very difficult for defining the reactions of the people from initial emotions that motivate the reactions of people. Lazarus defined two different methods of appraisal first was a primary appraisal, the second was a secondary appraisal. The first method was directed at the time of formation of significance or meaning of the event to be organized. The second one was directed at the time of assessment of the ability for an organism to manage up with a mechanism. He divided these two theories into two parts one is direct actions and cognitive reappraisal method.
There are two approaches to theory, structural approach and process model. These models provide an explanation of evaluation or appraisal of emotions and an explanation of it in different ways how emotions can be developed. At the time of absence of psychological arousal, a person decides how to feel about a situation after interpreting and explaining the portents to him. The sequence of events is as follows event then thinking and simultaneous events of stimulation and emotions.
The structure model explains the relationship between appraisal and emotions a person holds. The model examines the appraisal processes and the examination of different people affects the emotions which are experienced (Roseman 2013.) Lazarus stated that the theory of emotions explains the relational effect, motivational effect and the cognitive effect.
The relational aspect always involves the relationship between a person and environment and it suggests that the emotions always include the interaction between two. Motivational aspect involves the assessment of the status of a persons goals and he identifies the aspect of the evaluation of the situation that is the situation is favourable or it is unfavourable to his goals. A cognitive aspect includes a persons appraisal on the situation or an evaluation of how related and important a situation is for that person life. Lazarus has also suggested that different emotions produced when situations are examined according to these categories. To evaluate each emotion, a structured model of appraisal is necessary. This model is used to evaluate individual components of appraisal to determine each emotion (Eysenck 2014). This model is also used to identify how and where the appraisal processes differ for different emotions. The appraisal process is divided into two different categories primary structure and secondary structure.
There were two limitations Primary appraisal and secondary appraisal. Primary appraisal refers to the evaluation of a person in two aspects motivational relevance and motivational congruence. While evaluating motivation relevance a person has to answer a question that how the situation is relevant with my need So the individual evaluates how important the situation is for his or her welfare. It shows that when a situation is highly relevant to person welfare. While evaluating the second aspect an individual has to ask a question to him that is the situation consistent or inconsistent for me. Every individual experience different emotions when the situation is consistent or inconsistent for them.
Secondary appraisal refers to the evaluation of a persons resources and options for managing. One of the aspects of the second appraisal is to whom he should hold responsible. It may be himself, an individual, a team or a group of other people for the situation they have now. Here the blame and credit both the things can be given to them. Blame can be given for the harmful event and situation and credit for the beneficial events. Another aspect of secondary appraisal is a persons coping potential. The coping potential is focused on either problem-focused coping or emotional focused coping tactics to tackle an emotional experience. Problem-focused coping refers to the influence they had at the time of emotions they faced in a particular situation. Emotional focused coping refers to a persons ability to adjust or handle the situations whether the circumstances remain consistent or inconsistent with a personal goal. The next component of secondary appraisal is a person future expectancy. Future expectancy means a persons expectations for change in motivational congruence of the condition. Therefore an individual can believe that the situations may change in favourable and unfavourable to them. The structural models help the researchers with answers to the questions of primary and secondary categories to analyze which emotion will be produced form a certain situation. These structural theories appraisal has been given by Smith amp Kirby.
The conclusion of the essay states that judging people in an organization influences or spreads negativity in the environment. As a manager, while making decisions avoiding judging people is a good thing for the company but sometimes it is as bad as it can be. Judging people by manager on the basis of work can be helpful for decision making but judging them on a personal basis can spoil the situation. And it will affect the decision of the manager. The theories of the researcher Schacter and Singers based on the emotional stimulation and psychological arousal of a person with reference to its environment. The theory of Richard Lazarus was based on the theory of appraisal in which he stated about the stress and stressors and the cognitive effects of the emotions.
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Ellsworth, P.C., 2013. Appraisal theory Old and new questions.Emotion Review,5(2),125-131.
Eysenck, M., 2014.Anxiety and cognition A unified theory. Psychology Press.
Hummel, R.P., 2018. Stories managers tell Why they are as valid as science. InDemocracy, Bureaucracy, and the Study of Administration(87-109). Routledge.
Jordan, P., Steingen, U., Terschueren, C. and Harth, V., 2018. THE MASLACH BURNOUT Reisenzein, R., 2017.TPM Testing, Psychometrics, Methodology in Applied Psychology,25(1).
Reason, J., 2016.Managing the risks of organizational accidents. Routledge.
Reisenzein, R., 2017. Varieties of cognition-arousal theory.Emotion Review,9(1),17-26.
Richard, E.N. and Harvey, L., 2017. Elements of Schachters Cognitive Theory of Emotional States. InThought and Feeling(13-25). Routledge.
Roseman, I.J., 2013. Appraisal in the emotion system Coherence in strategies for coping.Emotion Review,5(2),141-149.
Shaked, A. and Clore, G.L., 2017. Breaking the world to make it whole again Attribution in the construction of emotion.Emotion Review,9(1), pp.27-35.
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