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  • Subject Name : Nursing

Lung Cancer

Contents

Introduction:

AIMS:

Objectives: (proposed objectives)

Background:

Introduction to this chapter:

Definition:

Causes and risk factors:

Symptoms:

Management

Consequences:

Prevention mechanism:

Methodology:

Results:

Discussion:

References:

Introduction to Management of Hypoglycaemic Events

Lung cancer rates at the third most important disease among all the deadly diseases in the united kingdom. It occurs in men as well as worn at an abnormal rate. It is very important to understand the risk factors, symptoms and prevent oneself from cancer at the right time. One can also apply for organic tests. Risks can even be in the firm of organic chemicals that can cause lung cancer.

Aims:

To understand the critically associated with cancer in people staying across the United Kingdom region.

Objectives: (Proposed Objectives)

  • understand what lung cancer is all about
  • Carry out an analysis of the symptoms, and risk factors associated with cancer.
  • To take preventive steps and mitigation steps to prevent cancer.

Background of Management of Hypoglycaemic Events

Introduction to This Chapter:

Half of the population of the United Kingdom is suffering from lung cancer in the present day. It is considered the third most common form of cancer in the United Kingdom. It is more prevalent in people who are elderly. There several symptoms of lung cancer. For example, elderly people continue to cough without it getting stopped. Apart from that, is often associated with blood and there is often a feeling of breathlessness and weight loss. One of the most common symptoms that people say ie men and women face is that they have a problem breathing. In case these lung cancer symptoms or risk factors are detected, then they have to immediately be transferred to the sum hospital for medication or diagnosis. This is a very important part of the short run as well as for the long run that there is no form of criticality treatment facilities. Detection checks the type, or the size of cancer or whether cancer has spread to a long region or not. General Health patterns of lung cancer require not only proper channel support but also emotional support from the side of caregivers to the side of care users so that they can deliver it. It has been seen that the care user who is generally elderly, loses the urge to leave because he or she feels physically tortured as well as mentally downtrodden. There is a negative feeling associated with constant pain and tough times to deal with. However advanced stages of lung cancer also spread to another part of the body. Therefore, it is very important to understand all the symptoms, risk factors and be clear to deal with survival rates of lung cancer (Oudkerk et al., 2017).

Definition of Management of Hypoglycaemic Events

Causes and Risk Factors

Lung cancer undergoes stages like stage 1 in which more than 80% of people can be saved. It is not a very critical stage, people who are going through the second stage have a little less chance of mortality that is the mortality rate is around 60% for such people. In the third stage, the mortality rate goes down to 40% for people suffering from stage 3 of lung cancer. Again in the case of the fourth stage which is one of the most critical stages of lung cancer, around 20% of the patients can survive this form of Cancer. Doctors in most cases look for ways about preventing situations from degradation. Once a person has already reached this stage ie the fourth stage, there is severe criticality. There is even a fraction of the percentage of people who suffer from the unknown stage of cancer in which no proper diagnosis is possible. Therefore chances are very less and more than 20% in around hundreds of people have to go through the stage (Hirsch et al., 2017).

Symptoms:

The person has to check whether he or she is under high risks like that of facing some kind of persistent cough, which is sometimes accompanied by blood at the same time the person's mind or chest pain which might be accompanied by some deep breathing, blood out during coughing. There might be weight loss and abnormal loss of appetite in which the person would not like to eat anything and he would also have shortness of breath, whenever he wants to do any kind of physical exercise. He would grow weak and tired very easily.

Management:

The survival reach for the prediction of management of lung cancer depends on three important factors. The first is the type or stage of cancer, the level of the person who is suffering from lung cancer and the third form of cancer whether he or she has been associated with any previous treatment or not. Based on this, UK doctors lookout for best means of cancer research programs and sometimes also offer free suggestions to deal with non-small cell lung cancer abbreviated as NSCLC. The small cell lung cancer abbreviated as NSCLC AND SCLC are the two forms which affect one’s survival depending upon whether the final score is 0 or 1. Diagnosis of patients means is self, for the ones who score 0. that they will be able to completely look after themselves. On the other hand, patients who show a score of the ones mean. They will need a doctor or a nurse’s help for recovery and be able to survive. The number of death rates from lung cancer especially in women has been taken serious concern and it is now reduced. However considered to last 60 years or the last 40 years, the survival rate has not improved much. Therefore, UK cancer-based researches are doing their best to find out more technological concerns to deal with the diagnosis, prevention and mitigation areas for people suffering from lung cancer (Mok et al., 2017).

Consequences:

Lung cancer causes death under severe conditions after a patient reaches the fourth stage. However, if timely interventions are taken, a person can be safe from death. Cancer can be caused due to several things. Addiction to smoking leads to one of the primary causes of associate with lung cancer. Several cases have been detected across the united states of America and the united kingdom for this. Sometimes no random clinical trials are done using beta carotene, retinol, and other substances. On the other hand, clinical trials are performed regularly, i.e. at regular intervals, then many cases of lung cancer can be brought under control. Therefore strategies in respect of pharmacological strategies can bring control over the situations (Hosomi et al ., 2020).

Prevention Mechanism:

  1. Early recognition
  2. Education
  3. Monitoring

Prevention mechanism concerns three important steps ie recognition of the risk factors and symptoms of Cancer that have to be done. After that, education has to be acquired. The caregiver has to understand what stage the patient is going through. Next to this, monitoring has to be done so that the patients can deal with cancer lung carcinogenesis, and the transfer takes place when there are malignant tumors. It starts to develop abnormally open a certain region. The progression takes place from normal to neoplastic pulmonary cells, and they have to be treated at the right moment all through camo therapy for radiotherapy so that the person can be safe from those are the critical issues in such a form (Levy, A et al., 2018).

In most cases, lung cancer disease is associated with bronchitis, pneumonia, and other infections that occur at the same time. Such risk factors are initial symptoms and an initial X-ray has to be done so that it can be understood whether there is anything in the long area collected in the space. This is also known as Pneumothorax. After dealing with the situations, a person has to check for emphysema, onsite experiences. Based on this complication issues can check insurgent issues. The person has a probability in plural effusion which cannot be controlled at a later stage. Hence, the platelet level, the hemoglobin, are other important factors of concern. These factors are required to be maintained to keep a balance with the body and prevent the person from going to the next stage. There are many cases of improvement seen after chemotherapy has been applied to the person at the right time (Gandhi et al., 2018).

Methodology of Management of Hypoglycaemic Events

Introduction to lung cancer in the next section:

Following sections are covered:

  • Search strategy
  • Search process – inclusion, exclusion criteria.
  • Search outcome
  • Assessing quality – CASP tool etc.
  • Data synthesis

Initial stages of inclusion-exclusion criteria for lung cancer has to be done by the clinical care practitioners so that they can search for the symptoms and risks that the individuals might face, and protect them and their body from declining. This is based on adopting several tools like that of CASP tool, data synthesis, and other options so that their clinical methods do not interfere with the overall study therapy. All this is to ensure clinical effectiveness and also to carry out the overall process of cancer within the budget. The cancer patients suffering from lung cancer have to be given first-line chemotherapy and based on how they respond. Then the systematic review is done and economic evaluation of the overall process is done. If conditions of CVR and the medical care practitioners are not right, patients lookout for locally advanced helping means (Torre & Jemal 2016).

 Sometimes metastatic non-small cell lung cancer can occur. All this can help them to recover the conditions of people who are suffering from cancer. For example, the National Institute for health research evaluation, the trials in studies coordinating Centre, the Alpha house, the University of Southampton Science Park, all these are supported healthcare who help to deal with cancer-related issues. A discussion about the inclusion and exclusion criteria is given. Firstly the patients are checked for NSCLC ie squamous cell on a large scale or adreno, carcinoma based on this, they move into stage 1-2 or any other form and internal staging system are done. This is to detect the criticality of lung cancer. After that, patients who are found to have a positive Perfusion or multiple ipsilateral lungs nodules access in the inclusion-exclusion are diagnosed. Criteria trials are performed by rank in between 0 or 1 in case any user who has been found to have a score of one, he needs to be diagnosed with the response to the neutrophil count, platelet count and hemoglobin count for that person. Also, the serum creatinine, the serum creatinine, clearance affect the bilirubin effect is to understand whether it is on the higher limit or on the lower limit. In many cases, the plural effusion and supraclavicular diseases are detected which are again important stages of Cancer. These are subject to clinical intervention, based on the histological and cytological diagnosis of situations. The situations are kept under constant observation for at least four weeks after that for the categorization based on zero or one is done and life expectancy of that person is detected (Antonia et al., 2017).

Results of Management of Hypoglycaemic Events

Cancer in all forms comes as the biggest threat of all the diseases. The caregivers check for all symptoms of the carcinoma, before further medication is done. This is based on histological and cytological proof of the criteria taken under evaluation. There may be adequate liver functioning, due to bilirubin, inadequate renal functioning, that doctors sometimes consider or exclude while diagnosing the results of lung cancer patients. Out of all the reasons, people who are persistent smokers are more close to getting lung cancer. Inhalation of tobacco through cigarettes is extremely harmful in the long run for the body (Reck & Rabe 2017). 

Discussion on Management of Hypoglycaemic Events

The report has been very helpful to understand the early signs of cancer, the patterns that can be controlled or cannot be controlled. It has explained the different stages in which lung cancer is categorised. In ordinary situations, a person undergoing stage one or stage 2 of lung cancer faces less risk. He/.she can be prevented by chemotherapy used by the health and social care centers. However, the HSC based organisations have to go through the inclusion and exclusion criteria. By this, they can detect the extent to which the tumor has spreads within the body (Abbosh et al., 2017).

References for Management of Hypoglycaemic Events

Torre, L. A., Siegel, R. L., & Jemal, A. (2016). Lung cancer statistics. In Lung cancer and personalized medicine (pp. 1-19). Springer, Cham.

Hirsch, F. R., Scagliotti, G. V., Mulshine, J. L., Kwon, R., Curran Jr, W. J., Wu, Y. L., & Paz-Ares, L. (2017). Lung cancer: current therapies and new targeted treatments. The Lancet389(10066), 299-311.

Mok, T. S., Wu, Y. L., Ahn, M. J., Garassino, M. C., Kim, H. R., Ramalingam, S. S., ... & Lee, C. K. (2017). Osimertinib or platinum–pemetrexed in EGFR T790M–positive lung cancer. New England Journal of Medicine376(7), 629-640.

Gandhi, L., Rodríguez-Abreu, D., Gadgeel, S., Esteban, E., Felip, E., De Angelis, F., ... & Cheng, S. Y. S. (2018). Pembrolizumab plus chemotherapy in metastatic non–small-cell lung cancer. New England Journal of Medicine378(22), 2078-2092.

Abbosh, C., Birkbak, N. J., Wilson, G. A., Jamal-Hanjani, M., Constantin, T., Salari, R., ... & Marafioti, T. (2017). Phylogenetic ctDNA analysis depicts early-stage lung cancer evolution. Nature545(7655), 446-451.

Antonia, S. J., Villegas, A., Daniel, D., Vicente, D., Murakami, S., Hui, R., ... & Cho, B. C. (2017). Durvalumab after chemoradiotherapy in stage III non–small-cell lung cancer. New England Journal of Medicine377(20), 1919-1929.

Levy, A., Faivre-Finn, C., Hasan, B., De Maio, E., Berghoff, A. S., Girard, N., ... & Dingemans, A. M. C. (2018). Diversity of brain metastases screening and management in non-small cell lung cancer in Europe: Results of the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Lung Cancer Group survey. European journal of cancer93, 37-46.

Oudkerk, M., Devaraj, A., Vliegenthart, R., Henzler, T., Prosch, H., Heussel, C. P., ... & Baldwin, D. R. (2017). European position statement on lung cancer screening. The Lancet Oncology18(12), e754-e766.

Zappa, C., & Mousa, S. A. (2016). Non-small cell lung cancer: current treatment and future advances. Translational lung cancer research5(3), 288.

Hosomi, Y., Morita, S., Sugawara, S., Kato, T., Fukuhara, T., Gemma, A., ... & Takamura, K. (2020). Gefitinib alone versus gefitinib plus chemotherapy for non–small-cell lung cancer with mutated epidermal growth factor receptor: NEJ009 study. Journal of Clinical Oncology38(2), 115-123.

Reck, M., & Rabe, K. F. (2017). Precision diagnosis and treatment for advanced non–small-cell lung cancer. New England Journal of Medicine377(9), 849-861.

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