Hoffman, R.2017. Watch Out! Another New Low In Market Volatility.
Lee, Y.S. 2016. Creative workplace characteristics and innovative start-up companies. Facilities.
Sacavém, A., Cruz, R.V., Sousa, M., Rosário, A. and Gomes, J.S. 2019. An integrative literature review on leadership models for innovative organizations. An integrative literature review on leadership models for innovative organizations, pp.1741-1751.
For instance, an athlete is performing for the first time in front of its team members. He or she may take it as a positive challenge to prove himself in front of the others. He may think that he has sufficient power to showcase his skills and abilities as a professional player. On the other hand, if the same athlete takes the situation as a threat to analyzing his or her previous performance(Williams et al. 2017). In such a case the athlete will perform poorly despite having the quality to deal with the situation positively. From the findings, it can be stated that challenge helps a person to rise whereas a threat makes the person fall.
Crum, A.J., Akinola, M., Martin, A. and Fath, S. 2017. The role of stress mindset in shaping cognitive, emotional, and physiological responses to challenging and threatening stress. Anxiety, Stress, & Coping, 30(4), pp.379-395.
Searle, B.J. and Tuckey, M.R. 2017. Differentiating challenge, hindrance, and threat in the stress process. The routledge companion to wellbeing at work, 54, pp.25-34.
Williams, S.E., van Zanten, J.J.V., Trotman, G.P., Quinton, M.L. and Ginty, A.T. 2017. Challenge and threat imagery manipulates heart rate and anxiety responses to stress. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 117, pp.111-118.
It is a leadership style in which leaders of the organization motivate, encourage and inspire employees to create and accept the change that is introduced for betterment(Irwin 2017). These leaders ask employees to innovate and create the change for the success of the organization. They give the employees a new room to create and find solutions for existing problems.
Bratton, J. 2020. CHARISMATIC AND TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP. Organizational Leadership, p.149.
Irwin, R.L. 2017. Charismatic and transformational leadership within a community of women arts educators. In Arts Education and Curriculum Studies (pp. 76-91). Routledge.
Miller, M. 2016. The persona of charismatic versus transformational leaders. Glocal Conversations, 3(1), pp.43-58.
It’s frustrating to manage a group of employees that do not meet the expectations of the company. There are several reasons for the poor performance of the employees. These include lack of training, poor attitude towards the company, poor equipment's or software, poor management, personal problems and lack in understanding. Let’s understand these in detail.
Abebe, T. 2017. Work attitude and behaviour at work. International Journal in Management & Social Science, 5(3), pp.86-93.
Jaworski, C., Ravichandran, S., Karpinski, A.C. and Singh, S. 2018. The effects of training satisfaction, employee benefits, and incentives on part-time employees’ commitment. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 74, pp.1-12.
Lanaj, K. and Jennings, R.E. 2019. Putting leaders in a bad mood: The affective costs of helping followers with personal problems. Journal of Applied Psychology.
A self-directed team is a group of professionals who work together to achieve a common goal. The best part about it is that a self-directed team has different skill sets which takes the collaboration to a new level. These kind of team are different from the top-down directives as they work based on communication. There is no supervisor to manage or direct the team(Akintokunbo and Obomanu, 2018). Self-directed team is a great example of micro-management. The team when complete the work, it presents the work to the management.
Akintokunbo, O.O. and Obomanu, F.K. 2018. Self-Directed Teams and Employee Work Outcome: An Assessment of Team Based Management. International Journal of Social Sciences and Management Research, 4(3), pp.10-20.
Hensel, R. and Visser, R. 2018. Shared leadership in entrepreneurial teams: the impact of personality. International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research.
Simpson, D. 2017. A Tale of Two Experiences: Teacher Learning in Self-Directed Teams and Other-Designed Professional Development. Michigan State University.
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