Identification and Discussion of Ethical Issues
Case and Consequences
The aim of the report is to focus on human microchip implantation realized by the organization Swedish business Disruptive. The report will discuss about the issues in doing so and will find out why it matters that organizations should know about it.Moreover, the report will also discuss why it is good, useful or being used. The report will also identified and examined two to four ethical issues associated with human microchip implantation along with thorough examination of the ethical issues. In addition, the report will also consider a case of a company/industry/NGO which demonstratesissues or guidelines and the consequences related to the human microchip implantation. At last, the report will propose two to four solutions/guidelines to the ethical issues related to human microchip implantation.
The idea behind the chip is not to monitor, that is the technology does not allow any type of monitoring. Human microchip implantation realized by the organization Swedish business Disruptive that approaches microchipping as a branch of the wearable health tracking industry. This matter to organizations and they should know about it, because there might be ethical issues involved by companies that have applied microchipping for their employees (Khan, Ostfeld, Lochner, Pierre and Arias 2016). It is important that the privacy of an employee is secured and due to such reasons there may be some ethical issues related to human microchip implementation. It may happen that this chip is misused and the privacy of employees who are implanted with this chip may be disclosed. It can lead to very critical issues to every individual who are going through this process. Human microchip implantation is good for the society as they are not meant to be used for tracking system. They are used so that the efficiency of employees can be improved (Werber, Baggia and Žnidaršič 2018).
RFID chips are passive chips and it does not have any built in power supply. Moreover, this chip cannot send any type of signal that reveals the position of an employee who is implanted with this chip. People are not required to worry about tracing by RFID chip says Epicenter’s members. Mobile phones and internet history are bigger threat than this RFID chip if privacy and being traced is considered. It will be good for society as RFID chip technology is designed for medical purposes and employees could prevent being possible heart attacks, be able to control their glucose levels in the blood and to even locate patients that suffered from dementia and to detect any possible gene malformation (Werber, Baggia and Žnidaršič 2018).
Ethical issues related to human microchip implantation are data privacy, easily hacked, threat to health of an individual along with side effects, loss of freedom of choice, microchip user may become prime target and it can harm the person if an attacker try’s to extract this chip from the victim’s body. However, the RFID chip carries vary small amount of data that is 1 kilobytes but this data can be very useful for hacker (Tucker and Boonthum-Denecke 2019). This chip was used by the Wisconsin based Three Square Market in order to allow its employee to access or login to their computers, open doors, purchase food in canteen etc. this RFID chip carries very essential data that hacker may intend to acquire. The hacker can harm the victim to for extracting that chip. In addition, other ethical issues related to this chip are that the chip is used for authentication of employees. If in case, the chip is hacked, than the hacker can easily access all the systems and payment details of the worker by making a copy of it. The hacker can do this by scanning the chip and creating a copy of the original or creating a spoof device. Moreover, if the hacker is not able to copy that chip, it may also happen that it may harm the employee for getting that chip from the employee body (Yao, Schmitz and Warren 2005).
There are advantages of this chip but disadvantages are more and it is very vulnerable in using this chip or implanting this chips into the human body. Besides this, if the chip is hacked, the person who is implanted with this chip will not be able to find the problems related to it. A big question related to implantation of microchip is that how an individual will know that his chip is hacked and how the individual will make sure that his information will be secure (Tucker and Boonthum-Denecke 2019). This RFID chip is consist of all the information that a hacker can use for its benefits like contactless retail payment, physical access control, medical patient identification and many more. A research at Reading University said that it implantation of chip cannot be switched off, which means if any problem occurs or if it get hacked there is no solution for it. However, this RFID technology was designed for medical purposes, for locating patients that suffered from dementia, to preventing possible heart attacks and controlling glucose levels in the blood in other cases but this chip is vulnerable to use.
A case at reading University School of System Engineering by Mark Gasson demonstrated that that this chips are vulnerable to malware. Mark Gasson has an RFID tag in his left hand implanted in 2009 (Meints and Gasson 2009). He tweaked it a year later so that he can pass the computer virus. Due to this experiment, a web address was upload to the reader’s computer address, which will result in download of that malware if the reader is online. Gasson said that it was a surprisingly violating experiment that had cause him to become a danger to the building system. The biggest drawback of this RFID chip implant if it goes wrong than the experience can be far more traumatic. This technology was not easy to remove if it was implanted and in many case if an individual do so it gets switched off which creates further more consequences. According to Gasson, this implant was like a part of his body and if these things went wrong than there is real feeling of helplessness (Meints and Gasson 2009).
The RFID chip has lots of benefits as well as drawbacks and the ethical issues founded related to human microchip implementation are data privacy, easily hacked, threat to health of an individual, loss of freedom of choice, microchip user may become prime target and it can harm the person if an attacker try’s to extract this chip from the victim’s body. The solution to this issues are as follows:
Innovating RFID chips: The RFID chip should be innovated will some additional features. The security measures and different control procedures should be upgraded to protect the data from hackers. Doing so will decrease the chances of hacking and will help in assuring people that implanting microchip is good for increasing efficiency of work and it is free from any kind of vulnerability. Innovating the RFID chip should also consider that the chip is used for different purpose for nonmedical purposes and use of this chips should not cause allergic reaction in human body (Patel 2018).
Chips should be restricted to only identification of a person not authentication of person(Halamka, Juels, Stubblefield and Westhues 2006). It is very important that the personal information of every employee is secured who are using this microchips. For that, the chip should only be used for the identification of a person rather than authentication. It will help is using the chip only for professional work like logging to computers and other devices. This will help in protecting personal information like payment details. Doing so will also leads to financial benefits for the company along with protecting the employees’ rights (Halamka, Juels, Stubblefield and Westhues 2006).
Chips should be easy to remove: The chips should be implanted in such a way that it can be easily removed from the body of an individual so that if any thief or hacker try’s to remove it, it can be easily removed without harming the victim’s body. An individual’s life is more important than his/her information. Therefore, safety of an individual should be the priority of any business using this technology (Kuehlewein et. al 2019).
ConclusionIt can be concluded that the report has briefly identified ethical issues and its solution related to human microchip implantation. The ethical issues identified are data privacy, easily hacked, threat to health of an individual, loss of freedom of choice, microchip user may become prime target and it can harm the person if an attacker try’s to extract this chip from the victim’s body. For these issues, the report has also identified and recommended some of the solution which includes innovation of RFID chips, Chips should be restricted to identification of a person not authentication of person and easy removal of chip so that the victim’s body is not harmed during the extraction of the chip by hacker. In addition, the report has provided benefits and drawbacks of using this chip along with cases and consequences related to human microchip implantation.
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Patel, N. 2018. Science Fiction Twenty Years Ago, a Nanotechnology Reality Today: Human Microchip Implants. UC Merced Undergraduate Research Journal, 10(2).
Tucker, Z. and Boonthum-Denecke, C. 2019. Security, privacy, and ethical concerns on human radio-frequency identification (RFID) implants: poster. In Proceedings of the 12th Conference on Security and Privacy in Wireless and Mobile Networks (pp. 322-323).
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Yao, J., Schmitz, R. and Warren, S. 2005. A wearable point-of-care system for home use that incorporates plug-and-play and wireless standards. IEEE Transactions on Information Technology in Biomedicine, 9(3), pp.363-371.
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