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  • University : Deakin University
  • Subject Name : Marketing

Marketing Question and Answers

Answer 7a. Various marketing campaigns are support or target the identity of a particular group of people such as women, men or even Australians. The targeting program used by such companies does not focus much on the fact that the product may be used exclusively by the identified group (Hamill 2019). It is, therefore, very crucial that the marketing campaigns of such companies specifically target the specific group identity and thus cater to the individual differences (week 7, slide 25). This is important as the social identities of the consumers help the marketers in guiding the behaviour of the people at a particular point of time (Hull et al. 2017). When a marketing campaign tries to target a particular group identity, it ensures that all the creative actions that are apart of the campaign are directed to gain positive behaviour from the target group and thus touch upon the aspect of group polarisation (week 7, slide 24). 

The activities, therefore, generate positive outcomes and helps in persuading the people of the particular group. The concept of associative learning helps in gaining a better understanding of the aspect from the viewpoint of the theory. According to the associative learning, experiences and the ideas reinforce and also creating a mental link with one and another (week 4, slide 43). This way when the marketing campaigns are targeted towards a particular group of people, the ideas people hold towards the product and its use gets reinforced and a link is created between such ideas. Therefore, in this manner, the marketing campaign tries to modify the behaviour of the target group on the basis of a stimulus.

7 b. Along with this, there can be some of the possible consequences of targeting a specific group of identity through the marketing campaign (Montaguti et al. 2016). When the marketing campaign focuses on targeting a specific group of people, it tends to ignore the other group of potential customers that exists in the market (Lee and Kim 2016). This can, therefore, lead to a situation where the market recognises the brand or product is suitable for a specific set of customers only. Along with this, it can also add to a lot of costs specifically in the case where the company is targeting different sets of customers (Harmeling et al. 2017).

The company would be required to create separate marketing campaigns for each set of customers so that they gain brand attachment which would further add to the cost (week 4, slide 36). In addition to the cost, such a campaign is considered to be time-consuming from the point of view of the company. A lot of time is spent by the marketers in the segmentation of the market and then understanding the needs and preferences of the target customer group. Along with this, the creation of a marketing campaign is a time-consuming task in itself which requires the company to invest resources and funds across various activities (week 4, slide 45).

Answer 1. The global pandemic named COVID 19 has changed the way in which we used to live in the past. People have been forced to work from home and the students have to study from home (Mehta et al. 2020). This has lead to a situation where people are left with no other option but to socially distance themselves from others. When the pandemic would end, there would be a number of changes when compared to prior pandemic times. People will have a fear in their minds which would force them to follow social distancing (week 7, slide 10). This way prior to the pandemic, there would be a great impact on the social connections of the people which tends to develop when people hang out with each other and spend some time. COVID 19 is a dangerous virus that has the tendency to spread through physical contact of a person with the other (Bai et al. 2020).

In this respect, the pandemic would result in poor social connections restricting social gatherings and any such event where people come together in huge numbers. The need for belongingness would be adversely affected. Belongingness in this respect is identified as the emotional need of human being where they aim to be accepted as a member of a particular group in the society (Xu et al. 2020). After the pandemic ends, people would want to be a part of a particular group considering the fact that they have been living in isolation for a long period of time during the outbreak of the pandemic (Zheng et al. 2020). The aspect of extended self is another topic that can be related to the change that the world will notice after the pandemic ends. The extended self covers personal possessions, family, community and groups (Rothan and Byrareddy 2020).

The pandemic would have a direct impact upon the concept of extended self where the interaction that a person would have with the extended self would be greatly affected (week 4, slide 56-59). Along with this, there would be a great impact upon the perception as held by the people towards the external world. People will have a negative perception about each thing and would live in fear of the virus. Perception is considered to have an ability to determine the interpretation and thus determine the outcome (week 2, slide 67-68).

The theory of planned behaviour is effective in defining the aspect of changes made in the behaviour of the people that are further subjected to the perceived controls ad the norms (week 5, slide 28). Therefore, after the pandemic, the actions of the people can be linked to the theory of planned behaviours where people will try to act as per the planned behaviour without greeting others through touch, remaining at a distance with others and would also avoid coming into contact with the unknown people around them. Another aspect of the behaviour of people after the end of the pandemic can be explained through the concept of implicit attitudes where the traces of past experience of the people would lead to the generation of favorable or revenue unfavorable actions (week 5, slide 46).

This way the past experience of people, faced by themselves or even heard from the others would be a great force in directing their actions towards different aspects. This is more in the case of the travel and the tourism industry which would have to adapt to the fall and change in demand for their services for a long period of time specifically in countries that are worst hit by the virus. Another outcome is the increase in spending as social rejection after the pandemic will lead to spending by people (week 7, slide 76-79).

Answer 6. Learning about the various psychographics of the customer provides a choice of selecting the most appropriate characteristics by the marketer (Fibri and Frøst 2020; Manner and Lane 2018). Among the various psychographics of the customers including the identity, personality traits and values, the most appropriate is the personality trait (week 4, slide 65). This is because, the personality traits of the customer provide the marketer with an understanding of the way in which a consumer would tend to behave with respect to a particular marketing initiative which is explained by the trait theory (week 4, slide 69). The study of this factor provides the marketer with an understanding of the response of the customer to a particular situation by persuading potential customers (week 5, slide 24- 26). The marketer would be able to create more influencing marketing campaigns covering the aspects of the identified personality traits of the customer (Tseng et al. 2017). Along with this, the personality trait of the customers would provide the marketer with enough insights about the changes and the introductions that are required to be brought into a product or a service. This further ensures that the brand or the company is able to satisfy the target market with the required products and services (Kim et al. 2018).

The focus on the on chosen options including the demographic factors and the psychographic factor can lead to assumptions and difficulties. Focusing on these options would add up time consumption where the study of all of these options together would create more complexities (Marbach et al. 2016). Along with this, it would be very difficult for the marketer to consider all of these options while creating the marketing campaign. In addition to this, there are certain advantages of having access to both the demographics and the psychographic options over just one. The consideration of both demographics and the psychographic options would provide a wide set of information to the marketer due to the implementation of multi-attribute attitude models (week 5, slide 20). This will help the marketer in the study of the market and the customers. If the marketer studies or considers only one of the options, it will not offer the marketer with the maximum return on the investment made in the marketing campaigns by working on associations, identity and motivation (week 6, slide 18).

Answer 10. Celebrity endorsement is defined as the strategy employed in the area of advertisement where it promotes the recognition of the brand and uses the image or the status of the celebrity as a means to attract more and more number of potential customers (Pradhan et al. 2016). Celebrity endorsement can be considered as an effective source due to a number of reasons (Chung and Cho 2017). There are some of the conditions under which the celebrity endorsement can be effective. The celebrity endorsement can be effective when the company is aiming to able to depict the product attributes with that of the celebrity through implicit associations (week 5, slide 48-50).

This way the use of celebrity endorsement builds a positive picture in the minds of the potential and the target customer segment. Along with this, celebrity endorsement would also be effective when the celebrity has excelled in a particular area in which the brand or the product promises to deliver where the potential customer perceives to be a part of the same group (week5, slide 5-6). On the other hand, there are certain conditions when the implementation of celebrity endorsement can be less effective or in other cases even be counterproductive (Wang et al. 2017). One of the conditions is when the celebrity faces some kind of negative publicity which may impact the reputation of the celebrity and can also be harmful to the image of the brand as a whole as they are perceived to be the reference group (week 7, slide 27)

10 b. everyday people can also be considered an effective source for the promotion of a brand or a product. This is because everyday people offer the company with word of mouth publicity that is considered to be the very effective and least costly option of promotion (week 7, slide 115-117; Rogers et al. 2017). Such publicity has the ability to spread at a much higher pace than the other forms of promotion or advertisement that is used by a company. Further, there are certain conditions under which this form of promotion is effective (Chae et al. 2017). The everyday people are an effective source when the product has a positive image in the minds of the customers or everyday people. In this case, everyday people would provide positive reviews and try to motivate the other potential customers in the market (McCullaghand Doherty2019).

Along with this, the everyday people as a source is also effective when the potential customer is spread in a vast geographical area and it is not possible for the company to reach out at all the potential customers by themselves and thus triggers a positive response (week 7, slide 128-129). In addition to this, there are certain conditions where everyday people as a source is not considered to be that effective. This is when people tend to have negative views and feedback about the company or even the products and the services that are offered by the company. The source can also be counterproductive when the everyday people hold incomplete or partial information about the products and further communicate this incomplete information among the potential customers.


Bai, Y., Yao, L., Wei, T., Tian, F., Jin, D.Y., Chen, L. and Wang, M. 2020. Presumed asymptomatic carrier transmission of COVID-19. Jama, 323(14), pp.1406-1407.

Chae, I., Stephen, A.T., Bart, Y. and Yao, D. 2017. Spillover effects in seeded word-of-mouth marketing campaigns. Marketing Science, 36(1), pp.89-104.

Fibri, D.L.N. and Frøst, M.B. 2020. Indonesian millennial consumers’ perception of tempe–And how it is affected by product information and consumer psychographic traits. Food Quality and Preference, 80, p.103798.

Hamill, J. 2019. From the President: Donate to maintain and expand the new SOF Public Relations and Marketing Campaign!. Shakespeare Oxford Newsletter, 55(1), pp.2-4.

Harmeling, C.M., Moffett, J.W., Arnold, M.J. and Carlson, B.D. 2017. Toward a theory of customer engagement marketing. Journal of the Academy of marketing science, 45(3), pp.312-335.

Hull, S.J., Davis, C.R., Hollander, G., Gasiorowicz, M., Jeffries IV, W.L., Gray, S., Bertolli, J. and Mohr, A. 2017.Evaluation of the acceptance journeys social marketing campaign to reduce homophobia. American Journal of Public Health, 107(1), pp.173-179.

Kim, S.H., Kim, M. and Holland, S. 2018. How customer personality traits influence brand loyalty in the coffee shop industry: The moderating role of business types. International Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Administration, 19(3), pp.311-335.

Lee, J. and Kim, J. 2016. The effect of consumer characteristics on the cause-related marketing campaign: The role of personal life values. International Journal of Business and Management, 11(9), p.82.

Manner, C. and Lane, W. 2018.Personality traits as predictors of online customer review motivations. The Journal of Social Media in Society, 7(1), pp.184-210.

Marbach, J., Lages, C.R. and Nunan, D. 2016. Who are you and what do you value? Investigating the role of personality traits and customer-perceived value in online customer engagement. Journal of Marketing Management, 32(5-6), pp.502-525.

McCullagh, J.F. and Doherty, A. 2019. The benefits of setting science in an everyday context: A primary school perspective. School Science Review, 100(372), pp.21-27.

Mehta, P., McAuley, D.F., Brown, M., Sanchez, E., Tattersall, R.S. and Manson, J.J. 2020. COVID-19: consider cytokine storm syndromes and immunosuppression. The Lancet, 395(10229), pp.1033-1034.

Montaguti, E., Neslin, S.A. and Valentini, S. 2016. Can marketing campaigns induce multichannel buying and more profitable customers? A field experiment. Marketing Science, 35(2), pp.201-217.

Pradhan, D., Duraipandian, I. and Sethi, D. 2016. Celebrity endorsement: How celebrity–brand–user personality congruence affects brand attitude and purchase intention. Journal of Marketing Communications, 22(5), pp.456-473.

Rogers, E.A., Fine, S.C., Handley, M.A., Davis, H.B., Kass, J. and Schillinger, D. 2017. Engaging minority youth in diabetes prevention efforts through a participatory, spoken-word social marketing campaign. American Journal of Health Promotion, 31(4), pp.336-339.

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Tseng, S.M., Liang, C.W., Tsai, H.L. and Chou, C.W. 2017. Understanding the moderating effects of gender on personality traits and customer knowledge preferences. source: International Journal of Innovative Science, Engineering & Technology, 4, pp.65-75.

Wang, S.W., Kao, G.H.Y. and Ngamsiriudom, W. 2017. Consumers' attitude of endorser credibility, brand and intention with respect to celebrity endorsement of the airline sector. Journal of Air Transport Management, 60, pp.10-17.

Xu, Z., Shi, L., Wang, Y., Zhang, J., Huang, L., Zhang, C., Liu, S., Zhao, P., Liu, H., Zhu, L. and Tai, Y. 2020. Pathological findings of COVID-19 associated with acute respiratory distress syndrome. The Lancet respiratory medicine, 8(4), pp.420-422.

Zheng, Y.Y., Ma, Y.T., Zhang, J.Y. and Xie, X. 2020. COVID-19 and the cardiovascular system. Nature Reviews Cardiology, 17(5), pp.259-260.

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