Materials and Manufacturing

Introduction to Screw Driver

Screw driver is a simple and basic tool with manual and automatic usage. Consisting of a handle and a shaft, it comes in various materials. Handle act as the grip that usually is of plastic or metal. The grip comes in various shapes to make usage at ease for the handler. The shapes can be round, oval or square. All shapes can improvise the usage and grip of handle and improve the consistency of usage.

The screw driver is used to open various kinds of screws that are used to develop and manufacture machinery. The basic shape of screws is (+) and (-) in shape according to which the screw driver is designed. The tip of the shaft is designed according to the desired shape of a screw. It also comes in various sizes as well. (Ando, 2004)

Required screw driver is identified by the size of tip and edge to open screws. Since it’s a hand tool, the handle grip is made of the material that can be easily grabbed and can keep the use normal. The grip can be water proof and rust proof as well. The handle grip of manual screwdrivers is designed usually with a rubber material since it is easy to use and hold. Powered screwdrivers usually have electric motor to rotate the bit. They are speedy and controlled.

The shaft is made of strong steel in order to resist bending, twisting and breakage during the usage of screwdriver. The steel shaft tip can be designed in various shapes and sizes as per requirement. In powered screw drivers, the shaft is usually installed in the electric motor that is used to open any required screw of machinery. (B. Lara, 1998)

It is handy and easily available during emergency times. You can have multi bit screwdrivers as well. While operating with a cloth wherever end is very important it is difficult to move the screw. A driver is way additional possible to strip the screw interface, or to slide and mar the fabric being screwed, or to drive the screw too deep and crack or warp the surface of the fabric.

There are a huge number of power screwdrivers which differs from an easy stick-type with motor, batteries and tip holder all inline, to powerful pistol kind VSR (variable-speed reversible) conductor drills that cumulatively function as screwdrivers. Drilling process for a pilot whole before driving a screw is a very common mode of operation. Special combination drill-driver bits associated adapters quickly alternate between two. Different impact drivers function as 'hammering' force for improved performance routine things. Another "right-angle" drivers to be used in congested regions. Numerous options and enhancements such as integral bubble levels, high/low gear choice, magnetic screw holders, adjustable-torque clutches, keyless chucks, gyroscopic management, etc. can be offered. (C.H Leong, 2017)

Plastic Component

The handles of a screwdriver area unit typically product of polysaccharide acetate; which is delivered to the plant in the form of powder (cellulose acetate rosin) and then it is mixed with a liquid chemical throughout an oversized mixer that holds about one thousand pounds or 454 kilogram weight of the mixed material. If the shape of a handle is desired to be in a specific color then pigments area unit is added extra into the mixer. the following paste, that has the consistency of thick cake batter, then goes to degree extruder (a machine that forces a fabric out through a spot, the style a meat grinder forces out strings of meat), that extrudes a solid piece of ester. The ester is then taking very little pellets. (N. Bernard, 2012)

Then the pellets area unit is fed into another extruder which extrudes these materials for the handles in bars that area unit eight to 10 feet (2.4 to three meters long). The oldest and commonest style of screwdriver is that the slotted screwdriver, that inserts a screw with one notice time for the head. There is a unit perhaps thirty differing types of screwdrivers out there recently throughout a mode of sizes, all with entirely completely different functions and each one designed to suit into special screws.

The oldest and commonest style of screwdriver is that the slotted screwdriver, that inserts a screw with one notice time for the head. There is a unit perhaps thirty differing types of screwdrivers out there recently throughout a mode of sizes, all with entirely completely different functions and each one designed to suit into special screws. (Philip. D, 1989)

If a two-color handle is desired, a second extruding machine is usually connected to the first to provide one, two-color rod. The rods area unit then places into degree automatic turning machine that shapes the handles and cuts them to the final word length. A hole is then trained among the handle where the bar goes to be inserted.

The handles area unit machine washed and dried to get rid of grease, oil, and excess scraps from the turning machine and therefore the extruder. Then the handles area unit immersed in degree dimethyl ketone vapor bathtub that melts and smooth’s the skin of the handle. The dimethyl ketone vapor is very ignitable, associate degreed this methodology takes place among associate explosion-proof house (W.Chong, 2014)

The method adopted for the final assembling of tool depends on the quality of the tool being created. Consummate model’s unit of measurement assembled one by one on a machine working horizontally which forces the bar hydraulically into the plastic handle. The handles unit of measurement is branded with a hot stamp before sending it to the assembly machine. This assembly methodology desires one sensible operator is needed for each machine. Other models may perhaps be assembled on hydraulic presses, 3 at a time. The littlest quantity expensive model’s unit of measurement is capable of assembling six screw drivers at a time on single machine and placed by mechanism on a skin card machine that packages the screwdrivers for mass-market sale. (j. Hwang, 2012)

Before the packaging process, the screwdrivers may be fitted with a special handle cowl, relying on would really like. A rubber cap fitted over a screwdriver handle, for example, may perhaps be lighter for associate knowledgeable exploitation his tool 5 or six hours on a day after day. Associate large handle with deep grooves may perhaps be ideal for a number of workers, whereas the house fixer UN agency assembles a lamp or cabinet once every six months won't would really like or have to be compelled to get of the extra comfort. It is very important to consider that the plastic polymer used in the manufacturing of screw driver should be recycle able and would easily be converted into a new form in order to save the environment. This process of recycling the plastic involves collection of plastic, then sorting and washing of it and then resizing this plastic into new size, then identification and compounding of this plastic. This is the whole process through which the plastic is resized. (N. Bernard, 2012)

Metal Component

The metallic part is the major part of a screw drive that is plays the role of transferring the force from screw drive to the screw for the sake of opening or closing a screw. So the functionality of this metallic rod requires a hard stiff and corrosion free metal for its production so that it can bear a large force and transfer that to the screw without getting molded or damaged by the environment through corrosion. In order to meet all these requirements the metallic part of screw drive is made up of steel plated with nickel or chromium. The plating of nickel or chromium on the tip of screw rod is to make it stiff and harder. The manufacturing process of flat tip and slotted tip of screw drive is not much different from each other. For this purpose ASTM 1045 steel is used. It has a medium level of tensile strength in normal conditions and has a tensile strength of 570 to 700 MPa & its surface hardness ranges from HV1000 to 1140.

This steel has a wide range of applications such as in car jacks, food processing equipment, mechanical tools, screws, rods and shafts. The chemical composition of 1045 contains a mixture of Carbon up to 0.50% a little impurity of Silicon 0.35, Manganese up to 0.90% and a little amount of Phosphorous Sulphur up to 0.04%. The machinability of 1045 uncoated bar is very good. In order to protect the chrome polished surface, soft materials should be used such as copper or aluminum as a clamping material to remove the chrome particles from the surface and avoid the scratching. This hard chrome plated metallic bar weld able. The cardboard protecting the chrome plating should remove before the welding process as it can cause corrosion due to the fumes emitted by this board. This welding should be carried out using low hydrogen electrodes. (C.H Leong, 2017)

In order to make the steel rod of the screw drive we firstly take the coils of green wires which had not drawn to final size and the size of this wire is usually 375 inches in diameter. This wire is then machine drawn in order to convert it into the desired diameter. We can produce the metallic rod of any diameter using an adjustable drawing machine. The wire is then passed through a die to make it of equal to the required diameter. The wire is then annealed to increase its tensile strength and make it harder. (Philip. D, 1989) For this purpose the wire is heated at a temperature up to 730 degree centigrade for duration of about 12 hours. This annealed wire is taken to the process of straightening by string forge. This straightened wire is then transferred to cold farming press to cut it in the desired shapes and size and the tip of the screw driver is made and also the wings to fix in the plastic handle. These metallic rods are then heated in the furnace at a temperature of 845 degree centigrade and after the heating of the rods, these rods fall into the oil for the sake of cooling. These cooled bars are then placed in the drawback oven to bake to a specific hardness level. The screw drivers modeled for the consumers are nickel plated having a protective layer of nickel. In order to calculate the minimum allowable bar diameter to avoid the fatigue we can use the simple equations for the steel 1045. In order to complete this calculation let us assume that the load amplitude is 66707 and FS to be 2.0. So we can calculate the αamplitude by g the αendherence = 320MPa. Thus the working stress amplitude could be calculated as below:

αamplitude = αendherence / FS

And then it is easy for us to calculate the diameter and the area of the rod. This could be as follows:

A=pi/4.d^2

So the calculations above give us the following results for our calculation

A = 416

FS = 2

d = 23.02

αamplitude = 160

αendherence = 320

Famplitude = 66707

The above calculations give us the value of rod diameter and other important features to be considered during the selection of metallic alloy for the manufacturing process of screw driver.

Fatigue/Failure Mode

Failure in any structure or product is occurred under the influence of overload on that specific object or part. Fatigue failure is the tendency of a material to fail under the action of repeated alternating or cyclic stress of less intensity as compare to the normal strength of the structure. This type of failure usually occurs due to the cyclic load which causes microscopic fractures and cracks in the structure. Similar to the other devices and metallic components the screw drivers also face the failures like overload cracking, corrosion and fatigue. The screw driver overload failure can occur in case of the application of large external force. (Philip. D, 1989) In order to calculate the overload failure, we have to investigate the material used in it and also the strength of material. In some metals the failure is caused by the corrosion which occurs due to the interaction of hydrogen. Fatigue is one of the major forms of fracture which accounts for up to 80% of the costs related to the fracture. The fatigue performance is affected by a number of factors such as the material, geometry and the amplitude of stress. The graph given below compares the fatigue limit of 1045 steel with the aluminum alloy. In the graph below, stress is plotted against the number of repeated cycles of that stress. This shows that when the amplitude of repeated cycles in the screw drives case is less than the fatigue limit then the application of small stress will not reduce the material’s fatigue life and it will remain unaffected.

Similarly when the amplitude of the applied cycles is increased from the fatigue limit of the material then it will reduce the fatigue life of the material. Similarly the mean stress effect on fatigue’s graph is given below. In which the most of SN curves are plotted under the influence of zero mean stress while in the practical implementation the fatigue moves near the non-zero stress in varying times.

In order to check the maximum and minimum stress we can use the formula below:

R= αmin / αmax

A= αa / αm= 1 – R / 1 + R

αa = αf0[ 1 – { αa / αu } ]

Where

Αa represents the allowable amplitude of stress

αf0 = stress at fatigue fracture

αm = it is the amount of mean stress

αu = denotes the tensile strength of material

Similarly the temperature has higher effect on the fatigue life cycle of the material. The metallic part of the screw driver has a creep behavior over time as the high temperature reduces the hardness and stiffness of the material and when the load is applied on the metal at a higher temperature then it can get molded easily or it can have more fractures as at high temperatures, the vibrational motion of the components of the metal is increased and thus the chances of fracture are increased. Similarly at low temperature where the vibrational motion of the particles is decreased so the stiffness of material is increased so there are very little chances of the fracture under the effect of load within the fatigue limit. (B. Lara, 1998)

Discussion on Screw Driver

Fasteners have a minimum of three properties, one being drive sort and the opposite being head sort and a 3rd being thread sort. Head sort are often (typical, not comprehensive list) spherical head, pan head, cap screw, flat head or hex head.

Drive sort are often for instance (not comprehensive) slotted, Philips, Allen, Torx, Oscar Palmer Robertson (square drive), etc. Thread sort could be a third selection - varied thread pitches, diameters and machine screw vs. screw vs. wood screw.

Drive sort and head sort aren't exclusive. You are doing not got to make a choice from Phillips and flathead screws. Here could be a flathead Philips drive wood screw and a flathead Philips machine screw. Flat heads square measure clearly used for flush look and non-protruding fasteners once required. Spherical heads look quaint and Pan Head appearance additional fashionable, for non-flush heads. After all flat heads need a further countersinking step. (W.Chong, 2014)

Phillips drive has some benefits, they're self-centering, non-slip drives and usually used. They give the impression of being an entire ton higher than slotted. However, Allen drives appearance sensible and is additional non-slip and still self-centering.

Slotted screws aren't self-centering permitting the motive force to slide and mar the work. They are also additional simply broken by wrong size driver and sloppy. You may wish Associate in Nursing uncommon drive or a security drive to shield your instrumentation from meddling. (W.Chong, 2014)

Conclusion on Screw Driver

In the end, having the proper talent in utilizing power and hand tools is incredibly vital. This information can go extended thanks to scale back the speed of accidents that occur with frequent use of power and hand tools like Sid chrome tools. Being totally equipped together with your power or hand tools, you'll fix most things either in your home or workplace. You are not at a loss or stranded over some broken instrumentation any longer. Having your power or hand tools simply accessible helps you to form some repairs in your room, car, lawn, garage, or attic. You shall currently boast of getting that satisfaction in repairs once you possess the proper power and hand tools in your equipment box. A tool is hand tool that's operated by hand rather than a motor or electricity. Samples of basic hand tools embrace cutters, pliers, files, wrenches, beat tools, placing tools, screwdrivers, knives, saws, snips, clamps, etc. (j. Hwang, 2012)

A power tool is any with an electrical supply or battery that allows it to figure mechanically while not manual intervention. Samples of power tools embrace band saw, impact wrench, compressor, impact driver, chainsaw, power screwdriver, jointer, etc. Remember, you'll be able to build your works easier and quicker with power and hand tools. By utilizing the proper tools, not solely can you complete your task in a very short time, you may build your work additional pleasurable. The selection of the material in the production process of any component plays a very important role in the life cycle and performance of the component.

So in the manufacturing process of the screw driver the selection of both the metallic and plastic part should be based on the use of the screw. The material should have the higher tensile strength less weight and also corrosion free in order to avoid the fatigue fractures. The selection of plastic is important because it has to hold the wings of the metallic rod and should be able to bear the enough applied force. Because the holding power of plastic defines the maximum strength that could be applied on the material. So if the plastic is not able to withstand under the influence of load then it could not perform the work for which it is designed. As the life cycle of plastic is very high and it does not decompose easily. So the recycling of this part should also be considered in the selection process so that it could be recycled after the expiry date of the screw driver or when it won’t be able to work in the required conditions. (Ando, 2004)

References for Screw Driver

H. Kawano and H. Ando, "Study of a recessless screw and a piezo electric screwdriver," 2004 IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS) (IEEE Cat. No.04CH37566), Sendai, 2004, pp. 903-907 vol.1, doi: 10.1109/IROS.2004.1389467.

J. Hwang, D. Jung, Y. Roh, K. Nam and D. Hwang, "Low-cost automatic screw machine using a commercial electric screwdriver," 2012 12th International Conference on Control, Automation and Systems, JeJu Island, 2012, pp. 1055-1060.

C. Chen and W. Chong, "Fastening torque control for robotic screw driver under uncertain environment," 2014 14th International Conference on Control, Automation and Systems (ICCAS 2014), Seoul, 2014, pp. 814-818, doi: 10.1109/ICCAS.2014.6987891.

C. H. Leong, R. Mohd-Mokhtar, N. S. Ahmad and C. W. Leow, "Modeling and control of torque and impact rate during screwing process," TENCON 2017 - 2017 IEEE Region 10 Conference, Penang, 2017, pp. 1997-2002, doi: 10.1109/TENCON.2017.8228188.

N. Bernard, F. Martin and M. E. Zaïm, "Design Methodology of a Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machine for a Screwdriver Application," in IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion, vol. 27, no. 3, pp. 624-633, Sept. 2012, doi: 10.1109/TEC.2012.2199494.

B. Lara, K. Althoefer and L. D. Seneviratne, "Automated robot-based screw insertion system," IECON '98. Proceedings of the 24th Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society (Cat. No.98CH36200), Aachen, Germany, 1998, pp. 2440-2445 vol.4, doi: 10.1109/IECON.1998.724109.

IEEE guide on terminology for tools and equipment’s to be used in live line working,” in ANSI/IEEE Std 935-1989, vol., no., pp.1-69, 12 June 1989, doi: 10.1109/IEEESTD.1989.94613.

Remember, at the center of any academic work, lies clarity and evidence. Should you need further assistance, do look up to our Science Assignment Help

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