Data Modelling and Database Design

Contents

Introduction.

Database management system..

Why DBMS is important instead of manual paper-based documentation?.

Database design approach.

Top – down design method.

Bottom – up design method.

Centralized design.

Decentralized design.

Key entities and their relationship.

Introduction to ER model

Representing entities.

Attributes.

Key attributes.

Composite attribute.

Multivalued attribute.

Derived attribute.

Relationship type and relationship set.

RHS hospital system and their attributes.

Description of Hospital management system database.

Normalization.

Conclusion.

References.

Introduction to Data Modelling and Database Design

This paper going to discuss about the database management system. Database is the collection data which is inter related. This inter related data helps in efficiently retrieval of data, inserting the data, modifying the data and deletion of the data from the database. Database organizes the information and data in the in tables, views, schemas etc. For instance, Royal Rundle Hospital (RRH) is a multi-specialty hospital and it has number of departments, rooms, different types of doctors, nurses, compounders and other employees working in the hospital. Patients suffering from different diseases who come to the hospital to get treatment and to get their checkup done from the applicable doctors. Sometimes, they get admitted in the hospital and get release from the hospital after their treatment done (Bachman et.al, 2012).

The main responsibility of the hospital to maintain the record of all the patients. The most necessary record that the hospital has to keep about the regular patients, patients admitted in the hospital, patients released from the hospital. The patients who are getting operated and the checkups of patient done by the doctors. In this hospital all the records are done manually, but now hospital wants a data base system to keep all the records. This paper will discuss the requirements and all the steps how the hospital can switch from manual or file system to database management system. This paper will be going to describe how database is easy and best choice for making records and how it helps efficiently in retrieving the data, inserting the data, and deletion of information from it.

Database Management System

 It is a software that helps in managing all the records of RRH hospital or all the organizations. For instance, MYSQL, Oracle, etc. are some popular software of the DBMS. The software of DBMS can use in distinct applications. Users of DBMS can do the following tasks: -

Data definition: this helps in creating the data, modifying the data and removing of data from the database of any organization.

Data updation: This helps in inserting the data, modify the data, deletion of data in the database of any organization.

Data retrieval: it helps in retrieving the data from the database.

User administration: User administration assists in monitoring and registering the users, to take care of the data security, check the monitoring performance, preserving data integrity, also deals with the concurrency control, also assist in retrieving the recovering information if any unexpected failure occurs.

Why DBMS is Important Instead of Manual Paper-Based Documentation?

In RHS hospital, the hospital using paper based forms and documents to store the information and data of the patients and also use some spreadsheets to store the information about the patients.so, it is necessary for RHS hospital to understand why DBMS is much more easy and benefitted from paper based documentation so that the hospital can switch from paper based to DBMS (Ritchie et.al, 2001).

File system or paper-based system manages to store the information in external hard disk. The staff of the hospital are permitted to create the data, delete the data and the data of these papers according to their need. Let’s talk about scenario. Data of all the patients is available to their respective department, as hospital has many departments like Orthopedic, Pathology, Emergency, Dental, Gynecology, Anesthetics, I.C.U., Blood Bank, Operation Theater, Laboratory, M.R.I., Neurology, Cardiology, Cancer Department, Corpse, etc. Here is the list of some demerits of the paper-based system and why there is a need of DBMS.

Redundancy of data: Redundancy of data means if similar copy of data pasted at many places. For example, if a patient wants to change his mobile contact number then this number has to updated in all the sections. Likewise, all records of the patients who are dead or records that are not in use must be deleted from all the parts representing the patient.

Inconsistency of Data: Inconsistency of data means if multiple copies of same data is available and they do match with each other. If any patient’s contact number is different in dental department and in Pathology lab then this is inconsistent data. It may be cause some times because of typing mistake or if number does not get updated in all the department of one patient.

Difficult Data Access: The user should know where the data is located exactly to access the data. This process becomes very complicated and cumbersome. If the doctor wants to search about the patient medical number and department type from 10000 of unsorted patient’s record and then it is very difficult to find one patient data out of 10000s.

Unauthorized Access: the paper-based system of data leads to unauthorized access of patient’s information. Anyone can change the medicines in the hospital of the patients in an unauthorized way.

No Concurrent Access: Concurrency means accessing of similar data by various users at the same point of time. Paper based system does not allow concurrency because only one user can access the paper at one time.

No Backup and Recovery: paper-based documentation does not include any back up and it does not provide the recovery of data in case any file or paper is lost or stolen.

Flexibility: there is no flexibility in the paper-based system, DBMS much more flexible than paper based (Ritchie et.al, 2001).

Database Design Approach

There are two strategies for developing the database, first is the top down approach and second is bottom up approach. These two approaches help in describing the common goal of interacting among different processes (Bachman et.al, 2012).

Top – Down Design Method

It is the generalization method of designing the database. For instance, RHS hospital has two types of doctors, namely regular doctors and call on doctors. So, the entity doctor can be bifurcated into two, call on doctors and regular doctor. Figure 1. Shows the top down approache and bottom up approach.

Bottom – Up Design Method

This method generally moves up to show the specific details. This model, first identify the items of data and then group all the models together in the form of data set. in simple words, this approach identifies the attributes first and then group all together to make the entities.

These two approaches are based on the various factors of the organization such as scope, size, management style of organization, and the structure of organization. The design of database depends on these factors of the organization, in the case of RHS hospital, either can be used centralized design or decentralized design.

Centralized Design

Centralized design is applied when the component of the data is made up of a moderately small number of objects. And processes. The design can be made by the small team of design. This can be a person or team that helps in defining the issues, and make the conceptual database with the help of user view and describe system process and constraints of data to make sure that the design of the database fulfills all the needs if the organizational goals. It is not fixed that only small companies can adopt the centralized design, even large companies can also adopt this model. It based on organization to organization (ScienceDirect, n.d.).

Decentralized Design

Decentralized design is the nest when used in the data elements of the system that has a huge number of entities and complicated relations on which different kinds of complex operations can be carried out. This type of design can also be used when operations are spread among various operational sites and the components are subset of the complete data set. if the project is very large and complex, team if designers are there to handle these kinds of design and to get this kind of job done. This can be achieved when many teams work on the distinct data sets or modules and get the job done and then combine all together. These teams also created conceptual models and compare this conceptual model with the user view, data constraints and processes for every module. Once all the modules are completed by different teams, they all put together and convert into one conceptual model (Mark et,al. 2000).

Key Entities and Their Relationship

Introduction to ER Model

At the very basic level, database is used to store the information of different objects, or entities and the associations among these entities. For instance, RHS hospital database might store information about patients, type of disease and department. A patient and a doctor are entities, while the treatment is the relationship between a doctor and a patient. Likewise, patients and rooms are the entities and assigned is the relationship between them. A hospital and a patient are entities and admitted is the relationship between two.

The most popular method to conceptual design uses the ER model that helps in transforming the needs into the formal description about the entities and the relationships. Now, the paper described how ER modeling process works in RHS hospital database (Ritchie et.al, 2001).

Representing Entities

IN ER diagram the set entities are represented with the help of rectangular boxes.

Typically, database is used to store different kinds of information and characteristics that is attributes of the entities. In doctor database, the name, email, address contact, type of doctor can be stores. These are the attributes of the doctor entity. Some attributes are multivalued. For example, the doctor can have different phone number, one for hospital and one for home. This is called multivalued attributes(Meyer et.al, 2000).

Attributes

Attributes are the set that helps in defining the entities and type of entity. For example, patient number, name, age, contact number, DOB are some attributes of the entity patient. In ER diagram, oval is used to describe the entity.

Key attributes

This attribute is unique and it define all the attributes uniquely. For example, patient number is the unique attribute and each patient has unique patient no. this is also called primary key that is a unique key.

Composite attribute

An attribute is said to be compose attribute which has several other attributes. For example, address can have, street number, city, state, country.

Multivalued attribute

This attribute can contain more than one value. For example, a doctor can have multiple phone number.

Derived attribute

This is attribute that can derived with the help of other attributes. For example, age can be derived from the Date of birth.

Relationship Type and Relationship Set

A relationship set helps in describing the association in between two entities. For example, doctor and patient and associated with the relationship treated.

RHS Hospital System and Their Attributes

Hospital entity

Patient entity

Doctor entity

Medicines entity

Description of Hospital management system database

  • The detail of RHS hospital is stored in the table of hospital with all the other tables.
  • Each entity such as medicine, doctor, patient, hospitals, all contains primary key, foreign key and unique keys.
  • The entity Doctor attends all the patients.
  • There is one to many and one to one relationship between two entities (Admin AfterAcademy, 2019).

Normalization

It is the approach and that too a systematic approach in which decomposing of tables are done with the help of different normal forms. These tables help in eliminating the redundant data sets and undesirable data such as insertion of the data, updating of data, retrieval of data and modification of data.

Patient

ID

Name

age

DOB

Contact no

result after normalization

ID

Name

DOB

Contact no

Conclusion on Data Modelling and Database Design

This paper described the different data sets in database and how storing data in the paper based documentation is very much cumbersome task and how storing the data in database is different from the traditional file system. This paper described the different sets of entity and relationship and how to form an ER diagram and that too step by step. Different type of database design for different organizations also described in the paper, how to reduce the redundancy, how to remove the inconsistency from the database also described in the paper.

References for Data Modelling and Database Design

ScienceDirect. (n.d.). Database design. Received from https://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/computer-science/database-design. Accessed on 23rd Aug, 2020.

Data Modeling and Entity Relationship Diagram (ERD). (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.cs.uregina.ca/Links/class-info/215/erd/. Accessed on 23rd Aug, 2020.

 GeeksforGeeks. (2019). Introduction of ER Model. Received from https://www.geeksforgeeks.org/introduction-of-er-model/ Accessed on 23rd Aug, 2020.

Admin AfterAcademy. (2019). What is an ER Model?. Received from https://afteracademy.com/blog/what-is-an-er-model. Accessed on 23rd Aug, 2020.

Elmsari & Navathe. (2008). “Fundamentals of Database Systems”. 5th Edition, Pearson Education. Chapter 2-10.

Bachman, C.W. and Ross, R.G., (2012). "Toward a More Complete Reference Model of Computer-Based Information Systems,”. Computers and Standards. Vol 1, No.1, pp. 35-48.

Meyer, K.H. and Morse, C.C. (2000). "British Computer Society, Data Dictionary Systems Working Party, Journal of Development, Current to Summer," 105 pp.

Mark, L. and Roussopoulos , N. (2000). , "Integration of Data, Schema and Meta-Schema in the Context of Self -Documenting Data Models," . Entity-Relationship Approach to Software Engineering. pp. 585-602.

Ritchie, D. and Thompson, K.(2001). "The UNIX Timesharing System," Communications of the ACM. Vol 17, No. 7, pp. 365-375.

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