Introduction to Marketing - Answer to Question 1

Maslow depicted that the attitude of a human being, as well as their resolution-making process, is greatly influenced by one of the stages in his pyramid of human needs ((Wu 2016). Moreover, in a marketing model the potential of a marketing person in terms of creating an influence on the greatest motivator is known to be a significant enticement for successful marketing. The reason is that such individuals are driven by elements providing them a greater level of self-confidence. It is meant for those individuals who have the need to achieve their highest capability. Marketing plans all over the globe mostly concentrate on the application of this model with an attempt to create the most effective marketing plans both in the case of domestic as well as global marketing.

An international marketer is required to understand the demand and requirements of their target group of customers. It is important for a marketer to c make use of this knowledge as a point of sales to create an impact on the concerned group of customers. In this regard, it is significant for a global marketer to first determine the emotional requirement of their target customers, that is the most basic need of any individual. It includes those requirements without which it is difficult for an individual to survive, like fooding, rest and air to breath. In the next level the security needs of the customers should be taken into consideration by the international marketers so that the customers feel that they are both physically and financially secured. It is very significant to consider the different societal relationship of their target customers, so the products can be designed keeping in mind the ranking of the customers in the society.

Also, consideration should be given to meet the self-confidence as well as self-achievement needs of the target customers. In this context, the global marketers conducts hardcore reasearch and development with an attempt to establish a division on the basis of their selected group of audience as well as the status of the consumers. Such a type of segmentation is done on the basis of demography, social standard, geography among many others. In this way, a marketer can obtain a clear perspective about their aimed group of customers and thus they will be in a position to customize their marketing plan of action in accordance with the needs and requirements of their target customers. Furthermore, they can make their decision about their commodity in the same way.

For example, it has been clearly depicted by Maslow that those individuals living in the developed countries give top priority to their security requirements in case of urgent situations (Shih et al., 2019). Like a car manufacturing organization in a developed country will concentrate on the pace as well as the security factor of their product to meet the requirements of their target customers. However, in case of a developing country a greater concentration would be given to the price element and also the safety factor of the product.

Introduction to Marketing - Answer to Question 3

Here are the key issues that has been determined in the system of distribution:

1. Incorrect goods management- An organization can experience several issues without making use of an automatic process of managing goods of a company. In such a situation the stocks of an organization need to be monitored manually (Li, et al., 2019) . This has the potential to make the workers of an organization tired as well as it can also in the process being ineffective. This kind of a system will not allow an organization to make any kind of changes in their orders, hence the procedure followed for returning and payback can be very much troublesome. Furthermore, the absence of any kind of automated data about the stocks of the company can make it complicated for the investors to make any kind of a resolution in terms of filling up their stocks again. Hence, in order to resolve this problem, an organization should have a detailed network of the suppliers that can assist the collaborators to make maximum use of their time such that they can concentrate on improving their business functions.

2. Inappropriate market and commodity knowledge- Issues can occur in choosing suitable distribution system if the distributing alliance has inadequate understanding about the product with which they are dealing with. This will degrade the standard of services provided to the customers as well as minimize the sales of the company.

3. Brand- If the commodities of an organization is marketed via a distribution network then there is a high chance that the power of the brand will be diluted if no proper communication technique is used by the channel administrators. Also, this will hamper the quality of communication received by the customers and improper information about the commodity and organization will reach to them.

Multi-Channel Verses Omni Channel The greatest source of distinction between a multi-channel and omni-channel retailing system is that the multi-channel retailing depends on various kinds of trading mediums while the omni channel retailing is executed in the direction of their consumers (Rao et al., 2017). The omni- channel retailing concentrates on enhancing the different encounters made by the customers as well as provide them with more chances to adapt their customers in a way such that they can get engaged with the company in the way they desire.

For instance, in case of a multi-channel retailing the consumers will find numerous techniques to get engaged with the products of a particular organization, but in no way they will be able to improve their own experience. However, in case of an omni-channel retailing, there are various meeting points and modes of engaging the customers with an attempt to improve their complete experience. Furthermore, if there is any kind of a disharmony in between these two mediums, it has the potential to annoy the customers.

Introduction to Marketing - Answer to Question 4

Issues in International Marketing

International marketing is considered to be more complicated than home marketing. The settings of a global marketing paves way for numerous issues as well as ambiguity. Global marketing is known to be more energetic, doubtful and provoking. The prevalence of different types of cultures as well as politics-based truth in numerous countries generates a huge number of obstructions that requires specific consideration. Moreover, even location-based restrictions can’t be taken for granted. Furthermore, the prevalence broad-scale terrorist activities have developed a fresh risk to the process of global marketing (Cateora et al., 2020).

For instance, the obstructions related to the various kinds of charges involved in the process of global marketing. It is a problem for the marketing team of a foreign nation to make suitable gains by means of trading commodities to the home country (Kheirkhah et al., 2018). There are many cases, when a well-planned cost strategy is developed with an attempt to boost home marketing and to disable global marketing procedures. International marketing is a complicated process both for the home country and its international counterpart with whom they are dealing with. There are few nations that have very long law-related procedures and it gets even more difficult both for the import as well as the export business to comply with. Furthermore, every country has a different kind of cultural background and race of people making it a complicated procedure for the international marketers.

Adaption & Standardization of Marketing Mix

Adaption of a marketing mix is important in the context of global marketing because it makes certain modifications in a commodity so that it is able to meet both the basic needs as well as the custom needs of a global business (Hopper et al., 2019). It is required by an organization in the course of exporting their commodities and services to other countries. In this context, adoption will assist an organization to comply with the foreign regulations as well as formalities to conduct a business at an international level.

Standardization of marketing mix is important because in this way an organization can create a single marketing plan of action and apply the same in several regions across the globe. In this manner, an organization minimizes their expenses in terms of creating several marketing plans of action. However, through this process if the brand image of an organization is robust in one country it will automatically act powerful in other nations as well (Kotler et al., 2018).

Marketing Mix- Apple

1. Commodity Mix: It consists of products and services that consists of IT (information technology) but it can even broaden its marketing mix by including even non-technology related services in the list of its commodities.

2. Place Mix: It consists of the choice of suitable locations via which the organization is going to supply its commodities. For instance, Apple Retail Shops.

3. Promotional Mix: It involves different kinds of communication mechanisms that the organization applies to get its voice heard among its target group of consumers. For instance, advertising and promotion ((Shahrawat et al., 2017).

4. Cost and Costing Mix: This part of the marketing mix establishes the cost, point of costs, series of costs for the various commodities offered by the company. Example: Premium costing scheme.

Introduction to Marketing - Answer to Question 5

Here are few factors that creates an impact on making a product decision in international marketing:

Commodity Type: The kind of commodity is very much significant in terms of determining the promotional strategy of a particular organization. A commodity can be divided in terms of them being an essential commodity or an entertaining commodity, it can be an old commodity or the latest commodity (Katsikeas et al., 2019). It is important for an organization to determine the type of commodity they are dealing with so as to ensure that promotional mix established by them is effective.

Application of Product: A commodity may be an industry-based commodity or even usable, an essential commodity or even a comfort providing product. For instance, advertisement and promotional mechanisms in terms of advertisement is broadly applied in the context of customers-oriented commodities. Also, the utility of the products should be taken into consideration with an attempt to determine its value and decide its product mix in accordance to that.

Problems of a product: Individual selling is considered to be more impactful in terms of complicated, mechanical, hazardous as well as freshly manufactured commodities. This is because they would be requiring an individual level of elucidation as well as reflection.

Buying numbers and time of occurrence (Venaik et al., 2019). It is important for an organization to take into consideration the amount of commodities that has been purchased as well as how frequently it is being purchased in a situation when a promotional mix is required to be created. Any issue in the commodity should also be taken into consideration with an attempt to ensure that the promotional mix is effective.

If all the above factors are considered, then an appropriate advertising strategy can be developed for an organization and their products will reach to the eyes of the appropriate group of customers. But for this appropriate feature of the products or services of a company should be highlighted in its promotional mix to ensure smooth communication of the advertising contents.

Standardization & Adaption Standardization is known to be a process in which a common advertising content is applied in the case of various different nations (Skarmeas et al., 2016). Furthermore, the process of adaption can be applied in the context when a different advertising content is required to be applied to different types of countries (. In case of a standardization plan of action, it is anticipated by an organization that a single advertising content will be appropriate to conduct international marketing in many different countries. However, in the context of adaption, an organization is required to customize their marketing strategy as per the needs and requirements of each country in terms of global marketing.

Adaption of commodities is considered to be very much important with an attempt to develop a policy that will be effective in terms of satisfying the needs and requirements of the consumers of various different countries (Moin et., 2017). Furthermore, if an organization standardizes their products, they will be effective in terms of measuring its economy. Moreover, through the process of adaption, an organization can provide different prototypes of their commodities to satisfy the requirements of the consumers belonging to different countries.

References for Introduction to Marketing

Rao-Nicholson, Rekha, and Zaheer Khan. "Standardization versus adaptation of global marketing strategies in emerging market cross-border acquisitions." International Marketing Review (2017). Li, Ruiqin, Yipeng Liu, and Oscar F. Bustinza. "FDI, service intensity, and international marketing agility." International Marketing Review (2019).

Hopper, Elizabeth. "Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Explained." Viitattu 12 (2019): 2019.

Katsikeas, Constantine, Leonidas Leonidou, and Athina Zeriti. "Revisiting international marketing strategy in a digital era." International Marketing Review (2019).

Kheirkhah, Asrin, and Farhad Nejad-Irani10. "The study of teachers' needs fulfillment based on maslow's hierarchy of needs and its relationship with human resource productivity in mahabad department of education." Importance of The Organization’s Management Development for its Continuous Growth (2018):

Moin, Sundeed, Sajjad Baig, Ahsan Iqbal, Qaira Aziz, and Muzzammil Hussain. "Impact of promotional mix on customer based braned equity: Mediating effect of brand image a case study of beverage industry in Pakistan." Int. J. Adv. Multidiscip. Res 4, no. 11 (2017): 18-27. 

Poljić, Momčilo, Dejan Tešić, and Neda Košutić. "Participation of digital promotion in the promotional mix of small enterprises." Strategic Management 23, no. 4 (2018): 32-39. Retrieved from

Shahrawat, Aishwarya, and Renu Shahrawat. "Application of maslow’s hierarchy of needs in a historical context: case studies of four prominent figures." Psychology 8, no. 07 (2017): 939.

Shih, Chiung‐Yu, Chiu‐Ya Huang, Mei‐Lun Huang, Chyong‐Mei Chen, Chih‐Ching Lin, and Fu‐In Tang. "The association of sociodemographic factors and needs of haemodialysis patients according to Maslow's hierarchy of needs." Journal of clinical nursing 28, no. 1-2 (2019): 270-278.

Venaik, Sunil, and David F. Midgley. "Archetypes of marketing mix standardization-adaptation in MNC subsidiaries." European Journal of Marketing (2019).

Wu, Chih-Wen. "The international marketing strategy modeling of leisure farm." Journal of Business Research 69, no. 4 (2016): 1345-1350.

Cateora, Philip R., R. Bruce Money Fred Meyer, Mary C. Gilly, and John L. Graham. International marketing. McGraw-Hill Education, 2020. 

Kotler, Philip, Kevin Lane Keller, Swee Hoon Ang, Chin Tiong Tan, and Siew Meng Leong. Marketing management: an Asian perspective. Pearson, 2018. 

Skarmeas, Dionysis, Athina Zeriti, and George Baltas. "Relationship value: Drivers and outcomes in international marketing channels." Journal of international marketing 24, no. 1 (2016): 22-40.

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