Marketing Research - Answer 1

1. The questionnaire that has been developed is quite likely to address the need for the research for Study 1. There are very specific questions with respect to the collection of data that is needed for the interpretation and analysis with respect to the objectives of the research needed for the study. The aim of the study is to gather data that can throw light on the mental position of the customers with respect to the aspects of traveling and more importantly, traveling by air (Lyon et al., 2017, p. 567).

The questionnaire collects the information with respect to many factors that will influence the travel behavior of the individuals once the restrictions of the COVID-19 crisis have been lifted. The mental, as well as the financial capacity of the people, has changed during the COVID-19 pandemic. The questionnaire has very specific questions that can help the company to gather information on certain very specific concerns that the consumers may have with any kind of planned or anticipated airline travel. The questionnaire contains questions like- a list of statements that the respondent of the questionnaire can select to reflect the mental state to the company (Badia, 2020, p.16). There are other questions like what all activities that form a part of the air travel make the respondent worry with respect to the threat of getting infected such as security check, gate lounge, baggage reclaim, etc.

There are very specific questions like the income range of the respondent, the likelihood of the respondent's travel post-COVID-19, etc. The study aims to understand the frequency of travel of different segments within RMA, to address this the questionnaire contains apt questions where the respondent has been clearly asked to write about the domestic and international flights plans they may have, the countries they would want to go to, the frequency of that travel, etc. The issue of safety has become very important for the consumers and the airline needs to know the mindset of the people to assess the type of safeguards and measures that would make the travelers feel safer with the traveling endeavors after the COVID-19. The questions address the concerns such as the feeling of safety with respect to the food and beverages offered, the major areas of concern that the customers have such as open food offerings, a shared bottle of wine within the lounges, etc.

2. The appropriateness of the length structure and layout of the questionnaire looks very apt. the questions have very easy to fill layout. The questions and their responses are very clearly worded. There are 29 questions in total that have multiple responses. The questions with round circles demand the respondent to choose only one option and the questions with square boxes give the liberty to choose multiple responses to the respondent and the ones that follow with a blank like this “______” give the liberty to the respondent to enter the information that he or she wants. The images below describe the same-

Like in this question the respondent can select multiple options

Here the respondent can choose only one option

Here the respondent can fill the blank as he or she may deem fit

The questionnaire, however, lacks a proper format because at certain places, it is asking general questions and at certain other places, it is asking questions that are specific to the RMA. This will confuse the respondent and coherence of the answers will be disrupted.

3. The questionnaire developed lacks the screening and skip questions to help the company to determine whether they should even process the questionnaire for data analysis on the later stage. The questions framed in the questionnaire are majorly related to a mixed approach where the company has asked the perspective of the respondent with respect to RMA only and there are no proper screen and skip questions that can help the company to decide whether it should process the questionnaire responses or not (Hahn et al., 2017, p.359).

The questionnaire can simply begin from a few screening and skipping questions such as-

Are you interested in knowing your options for air travel after COVID-19 restrictions are lifted?

Are you likely to travel by air if enough safeguards with respect to sanitization and social distancing are provided?

4. The phrasing of the questions has been quite good so far. The language of the questions used is pretty clear and easy to understand. There are no difficult words inserted between the questions.

5. The questionnaire lacks proper scale levels/types. There is no bifurcation to determine the proper scale level or type. The questionnaire can be enhanced to improve this aspect to a good extent.

Marketing Research - Answer 2

The data collection method based on the recommendations and critical analysis shared above should be the distribution of the questionnaire among the respondents and then collecting the responses for it. The company should choose a locality within one particular city and should examine the responses shared by the people of that area to analyze the data that will be collected with the help of the responses to this questionnaire (Wright et al., 2016, p. 6). It will be suitable to distribute the questionnaire to one locality only as it will facilitate the collection method and process. When one area will be selected for the data collection, there will be less time and effort that will go into collecting the data that is needed for the company.

The advantages of using this data collection method are-

  • The method is inexpensive and effortless
  • It provides scope for easy analysis and visualization
  • Maintains the secrecy of the respondents
  • Offers scalability and comparability
  • The screening and skipping can eliminate improper responses very easily

The disadvantages of the questionnaire data collection method are-

  • There can be dishonest answers
  • There is a risk of unanswered questions
  • People can have difficulty in understanding the meaning of certain things
  • The response rate is not guaranteed

Suggestions for a good implementation of the questionnaire data collection method-

  • The researcher can ask the respondent to fill the questionnaire in front of the researcher
  • The researcher can select one big locality of an urban area as it will provide the requisite strength needed
  • The area selected should be urban as they are more likely to travel by air and will be suitable for the company’s research
  • The researcher can simply mail the questionnaire copy to the people as it will help in social distancing

Marketing Research - Answer 3

Simple Random sampling method can be used to achieve the objectives of the research for Phase 1 of the study. The simple random sampling will enable the company to get responses for a homogenous analysis of the data. Simple sampling can be used where the population is homogenous. Since the proposed method of data collection is a questionnaire that has been distributed and disbursed among a homogenous population, simple random sampling is best suited here (Albers, 2017, p. 217).

The image given below describes a simple random sampling

The advantages of the simple random sampling method are-

  • The sampling will need minimal or no prior knowledge of the study group of population to ascertain any results
  • There are very fewer biases as the researcher has no interest in the types of people selected for sampling
  • There are zero errors with respect to classification

The disadvantages of the simple random sampling method are-

  • There will be the time needed to select a homogenous population for 500 samples
  • The sample size is big the effort to contact and approach people for the responses is going to be more
  • The researcher has zero control over the responses of the sample

The visualization of the random sampling method is very easy and it gives the researchers a good idea of the responses and sample. For example, there is a question that 500 people answer with respect to the likelihood of air travel and the responses that are received are as follows-

Very Likely- 121

Moderate- 200

Least likely- 279

It can be represented in a pie chart for more clarity and insight as follow-

Marketing Research - Answer 4

The first step to analyze and report the data collected from the questionnaire will be to store it in a tabular form. The researcher will make a table and record responses for each question in a table from each questionnaire. The company will have to add up all the responses for all the questions at one given place only (Sheard, 2018, p. 429).

The figure given below is an example of a data reporting collected on a survey conducted for discovering the preferences for three types of ice-cream flavors-

The three inferential statistical tests that can be done for the research questions can be

Hypothesis test, confidence interval, and regression analysis. The inferential statistics help the researcher to determine whether the inference observed is due to an intervention or is simply a chance. There are three types of distribution tests in inferential statistics and they are - a normal distribution, the uniform distribution, and the gamma distribution.

Hypothesis Testing

In this type of inferential statistics, the technique of analysis is to make inferences about a whole populace dependent on a representative test. The researcher can increase huge advantages by working with a set sample. By and large, it is essentially difficult to watch the whole populace to comprehend its properties. The main option is to gather an arbitrary example and afterward use insights to examine it.

Confidence Intervals

When a researcher deploys inferential stats, an essential objective is to gauge populace boundaries. These boundaries are the obscure qualities for the whole populace, for example, the populace mean and standard deviation. This boundary esteems are obscure as well as quite often mysterious. Regularly, it's difficult to quantify a whole populace. The sampling error of the slightest possibility produces vulnerability, or a margin of some error, around the assessments that are being conducted (García et al., 2017, p. 723).

Regression Analysis

This type of inferential statistic depicts the connection between a lot of autonomous factors and a reliant variable. This examination fuses speculation tests that help decide if the connections observed in the data sample really exist in the populace or not.

As per the research objectives of the company, these inferential methods should be most suitable for the company’s endeavors.

Marketing Research - Answer 5

The company should aim to develop a descriptive research design. A descriptive research design comes with many strengths and advantages. In this method, the researcher will be able to define the characteristics of the population to make it more contextual with respect to the phenomenon that is under study.

The questionnaire methodology that has been developed will be able to provide the naturalistic insight into the sample responses.

The advantages of the research design are-

  • It can analyze the non-quantified topics
  • The researcher has no bias over the natural environment in which the method is implemented
  • The research trustworthiness is more
  • It is easy to implement
  • It is fast and inexpensive
  • The results produced are conscientious

The disadvantages of the research design are-

  • The design will pose problems in statistical analysis
  • The design is observational and hence will create issues in the repeatability factor of the samples

b- the data collection method could be implemented by sending out the survey questionnaire to the email addresses of the clients. This will save time and collection efforts and in this manner, the company can conduct the research while also taking the means for sufficient social distancing methods (Lokshina et al., 2017, p.37-56).

The appropriate sampling plan would be convenience sampling. In the convenience sampling method, what the researcher needs to do is to select the sample population based on the convenience of getting the responses.

Here in the present case, the company needs air travelers and the people who are more likely to travel than the others once the COVID crisis is over. Therefore, it needs to get the responses of these specific people only. Also, there is a factor of approach in the time as people are maintaining social distance, it is important to understand and assess the method of data collection and sampling that will help with the same.

The company will have to collect the responses from the email as it is unlikely that anyone would want to touch the questionnaire they will receive at some kiosk or a supermarket.

References for Marketing Research

Albers, M.J., 2017. Quantitative data analysis—In the graduate curriculum. Journal of Technical Writing and Communication47(2), pp.215-233.

Badia, G., 2020. More Data Collection≠ More Valid Results: A Critical Review of Space Assessment Methods in Academic Libraries. New Review of Academic Librarianship, (just-accepted), pp.1-17.

García, D.L., Nebot, À. and Vellido, A., 2017. Intelligent data analysis approaches to churn as a business problem: a survey. Knowledge and Information Systems51(3), pp.719-774.

Hahn, B., Welte, T., Faulstich, S., Bangalore, P., Boussion, C., Harrison, K., Miguelanez-Martin, E., O’Connor, F., Pettersson, L., Soraghan, C. and Stock-Williams, C., 2017. Recommended practices for wind farm data collection and reliability assessment for O&M optimization. Energy Procedia137, pp.358-365.

Lokshina, I.V., Durkin, B.J., and Lanting, C.J., 2017. Data analysis services related to the IoT and big data: strategic implications and business opportunities for third parties. International Journal of Interdisciplinary Telecommunications and Networking (IJITN)9(2), pp.37-56.

Lyon, A.R., Connors, E., Jensen-Doss, A., Landes, S.J., Lewis, C.C., McLeod, B.D., Rutt, C., Stanick, C. and Weiner, B.J., 2017. Intentional research design in implementation science: Implications for the use of nomothetic and idiographic assessment. Translational Behavioral Medicine7(3), pp.567-580.

Sheard, J., 2018. Quantitative data analysis. In Research Methods: Information, Systems, and Contexts, Second Edition (pp. 429-452). Elsevier.

Wright, A.L., Wahoush, O., Ballantyne, M., Gabel, C., and Jack, S.M., 2016. Qualitative Health Research Involving Indigenous Peoples: Culturally Appropriate Data Collection Methods. Qualitative Report21(12). pp 4-8

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