Networked Application Management

1.a. over lay network is an approach that help in creating the network abstraction and these abstractions can be used to run in the multiple separate file, different virtualized network layer and this layer should be on the top of the network, physical network and it can offer security applications and benefits of the applications.

Overlay networking is also known SDN, Software defined network is an example of overlay networking. It is created with the help of two end points, and creates a connection that is virtual connection among them, various secure overlays can be created with the help of software that exist in the presence of network and hardware infrastructure. These two end points can also be the actual locations like port of the network or they could be the designated logical locations with the help of a software address in the cloud of networking. The virtual connection among the end points can be developed with the help of switching software or routings that can be applied to the tags of software, encryption and labels, to prepare a virtual tunnel that works through the network. If the method of encryption is used then data is very much secure among the endpoints so that the users can be authorized to utilize the connection.

There are different methods to overlay networking also is in the SDN network. It depends on the technique of software only solution that do not have the entire control of the hardware and with the integrating of chip level. There is one more criticism that lies, in the overlay networking, it can develop with the help of performance overhead by integrating more layers of processing and software. Thus can happens because the particular software and code or agents can be installed with the help of network that is used to manage SDN overlay.

b. Skype:

Skype is an overlay network that is peer to peer network, it has two types of nodes in this network. The main host in this is an application of skype that is used to for sending messages and calling. There is an ordinary host that helps in connecting the super node with the login server for the login that should be successful. The login server is an important entity in the network of skype

Skype is used as a VoIP which is the network of protocol. This is the protocol that is available publicly. There are various functions of the skype such as start up login, media transfer, presence message, user search and establishment of call and trearing down.

Netflix:

There are different functions of the Netflix such as to watch Tv movies and shows without connecting the device electronically.

Q.2.a. a socio techno system is that system that help in connecting the and considering the requirements of spanning such ad hardware, software, community aspects and personal. It applied to the understanding of the structures that is social, insights and roles and rights such as the social science to inform about the design of the system that incorporates the community of technology and the people.

A social technical system is the system that operates on the basis of technical things, example, email, chat, YouTube, Twitter and many more. There are some characteristics of socio technical system such as interdepend parts of the system, the system should be flexible enough to adapt and pursue the goals in the external environments, should have compromising internal environment and the systems should be technical and social subsystems. There are four levels of computing it:

Community: it is a sociology discipline such as sanctions, roles, and many more.

Personal: it is a Phycology discipline such as attitudes, beliefs,

Informational: it is a computer science discipline such as programs, data, bandwidth, and memory.

Mechanical: it is an engineering discipline like hardware, motherboard, FAX, telephone and many more.

Q.2.b

Hundreds and thousands of people use the socio technological environment in the form of IT products, when these idea products designed, it is the socio technical environment that can help and support in making the designs of these software. The main way of approaching the human study technology with the help of interaction. Interaction is great idea that help in getting to know more about the technology and the human mind. The term socio technical system first was coined in the year 1960 and by the Emery and Trsit and it is a complex process and complicated interaction among humans, the environmental aspects and the machines of the work system.

There are four principles of it, on which it depends and these principles are main in getting to interact with the IT products and the human mind. It is the human mind that creates different design. These designs can be created by the humans with the help of interaction to the environment, when human mind requires anything then it is the human mind that can design according to its need. This is how socio technical system works. The four principle are,

Social system, technical system, managing the system and technical.

These are the four principles and these are the examples that help in designing the IT devices for example mobile phone, speakers and many more.

According to first principle, there is no organization that is optimum, the firm and the people a change as the technology changes and they modified the things as per the technology, as per the needs and as per the commands.

As per technical system, there are some control variances.

As per integration, it helps in optimism the system instead of the component of the system.

As per managing the system means allows the team to maintain the work in the daily basis. It also acts the coach to facilitate instead of supervise.

Q.3.a.

There are some multimedia applications such as requirements, Quality of service, characteristics, quality of service manager, quality of service quality of service that is integrated service architecture, and differentiated services architecture.

There are some applications of the multimedia applications with reference of quality of service requirements are;

Low latency communication

External synchronization

Media synchronization

External synchronization

Quality of service:

Traditional internet is the historically internet which is based on the effort delivery service.

Congestion helps in controlling the mechanism to throttle the traffic because this traffic consumes a lot of energy and excessive resources, and TCP sliding widow protocol.

It also helps in reducing the risk of extra congestion but there is no direct address to quality of service requirements.

Q.3.b

There are some applications of the multimedia applications with reference of quality of service requirements are;

Low latency communication

External synchronization

Media synchronization

External synchronization

Integrated service architecture:

There are some functions that help in managing the congestion and also helps in providing the QoS transport:

Admission control: For quality of service, it is different from the default best effort transport, ISA requires that help in reservation that can be made on the new flow. If the routers help in collectively measuring that there are insufficient resources that gives the guarantee. For the requested QoS, for which the flow is not admitted. RSVp protocol is used to make the flow.

Routing algorithm is used for taking the routing decisions in the basis of variety of QoS parameters, it is not only used for minimum delay.

Queuing algorithm which plays a vital role of the ISA and it is an effective queuing policy that takes into account of the differing requirements of the differing flows.

Discard policy is also used that helps in measuring the packets to drop if the buffer is full and the packets are new arriving.

There are important thing in the ISA architectural framework such as control panel that includes admission control, resource reservation and Qos Routing, management that includes traffic metering and recording, policy, traffic congestion and SLA that is Service level agreement, data plane such as Traffic classification, congestion avoidance, traffic policing, queuing and scheduling, queue management, traffic shaping and packet marketing.

These are the things that help in resource management such as fair scheduling like fair queuing and weighted fair queuing, real time scheduling that includes earliest deadline first and rate monatomic.

Diffserve:

The architecture of differentiated service offers RFC 2475 and it is designed to provide, simple, easy to implement, support a range of network services and also differentiated based on the performance.

It is the Diffusive that accepted broadly on the mechanism od QoS in the networks of enterprise.

Diffserve domain:

The domain of diffserve have following:

Classifier

Meter

Marker

Shaper or dropper

Queue management

Host

Border components

Interior components

Assured forward PHB:

Q.4.a.

Security

In this , large amount of data steals every day and that too from the web application servers that can be accessed publicly.

There are top 5 web application which is a security issue:

No

Security risk

cause

Consequences

1

Injection

There are different kinds of injections that can occur such as SQL, OS and LDAP if the data is untrusted and sent to the interpreter as a query of command

The data can be theft or steal

2

XSS that is cross site scripting

Application’s takes the data and send it to the web browser without the appropriate validation

The scripts can be executed

3

Broken authentication and session management

Improperly implemented the data.

It compromises the keys

4

Insecure direct reference object

The developer expose the references to the internal implementation to the data security and to the database.

Manipulate the references

5

Cross site request forgery CSRF

It forces the logged in to the browser of user through HTTP request incorporates session cookie, and other authentically incorporated information

User browser generate the request forcefully

Availability

It means the failure of the systems on the physical laptop or computer and the applications of the user influenced, the failure of one system can affect the entire community or system’s laptop and computers and it also influenced the whole population.

It is necessary to avoid this, so that the design of infrastructure can be protected against, potential site level outage of failures, as well as the individuals failures of the components.

Scalability

It is the virtual machine that helps in managing the lifecycle and making sure about the accountability for creating the creation of every, monitoring throughout of the lifecycle that helps in decommissioning the system at its end.

The systems can easily be developed and the system can be cloned very easily, the original number of servers both the physical and the virtual, and it is continually expanding.

Hence, tracking, retiring and monitoring servers as a continuous.

Tracking Virtual Machines and their resources consumption throughout their lifecycle that becomes more and more difficult for the manager application.

Manageability

There are five characteristics of manageability:

  • On-demand self-service
  • Rapid elasticity
  • network access is ubiquitous
  • resource business location is independent

Q.4.b.

Performance testing is measured in terms of, the performance and the capacity of the quality of a system that is against to set a benchmark criteria.

There are some application of the performing testing;

Planning of the project that includes, making sure about the stable applications which is enough for the performance testing, it is also helpful in allocating time to perform the test very efficiently and effectively, the essential nonfunctional requirements that includes, to design an appropriate performance test environment, to set the realistic and the most appropriate requirements, it is also help in identifying the use case of critical business, providing test data, creating a load model and making sure about the performance test design that is also necessary for identifying the KPIs that is key performance indicator.

There are some specifications that is required at the time of performance testing;

  • Bandwidth and the connectivity that helps in networking infrastructure.
  • Tier deployment
  • Sizing of application databases

Q.5. a SNMP is simple network management protocol, it is the de facto value protocol that helps in managing the network. It is a simple solution that helps in needing for the little code to implement, it also makes vendors so that they can easily build the agents of SNMP for the products, it also support the foundation network of management architecture. It is also very useful in defining how the information is exchanged among the applications of network management and management agents.

There are some components of SNMP such as manager, agents, polls, data, GUI and many others.

SNMP is a protocol that helps in managing and exchanging the messages. It also utilizes the UDP that is user data protocol, which is a transport mechanism to retrieve and to send the management information like MIB variables. Router is a device which is managed by the manager.

MIB is the agent of management that helps in collecting the information and stores it in locally in the MIB, it is a database that does not have any object, it is also useful in accessing or setting the MIB variables, that is user specify that appropriate to read, write and community string.

SNMP version 1 and SNMP version 2 can be used in place of SNMP.

Jitter is the amount of variation that has in the packet delays. This is the reason it is also known as delay variation. It is also used in calculating the average variations in the arrival time of the packet at the receiving end over a fixed time period. There are two important cause why jitters happens such as packet loss and the network congestion. It is important to know about the jitter so that get to know about the delay if any happens. The endpoints are designed in such a way so that it is helpful in smoothing the minor variations that is helpful in arriving the data intentionally which is helpful in delaying the playout of incoming packet.

Q.5.b.

Accurate polling is very much required as it helps in getting the right and accurate packet and sending the accurate and appropriate packet.

Polling is the process that helps in checking the readiness of the state and in the computer level or device waits for the external device to check. For example, if the printer is connected through the port the computer waits till the time computer does not get the next instruction or command. These processes can be take minute or more time as only one bit reading at one time. This is sometimes known as busy wait polling, here busy wait polling means that sometimes the printer is busy in printer and sometimes it is busy in waiting for the instruction for the next character print.

Q.6.a.

There are different challenges of the cloud. These are;

  1. Issues related to security
  2. Cost containment and management
  3. Lack of expertise and lack of resources
  4. Control or the convenance
  5. Compliance
  6. Performance, the performance depends on the service providers,
  7. Developing a Private cloud
  8. Segment adoption and usage
  9. Migration
  10. Managing various clouds

The front-end server is a kind of extension of the back-end server and it is designed to offer security. Various front end can be connected to back end and each front end have various clients to it in a distributed set up. The main function of the front end is to channelize the request received from the clients. The front end helps in taking care of the data and producing the database views with the help of database read operations with the help of completely stateless architecture. This helps in offering the accurate data at all times.

Q.6.b.

There are some common network challenges performance:

There are some common that can be encountered while trying to determine the performance of the network and it is because of the lack of real time provision that makes use to detect the problems instantly while transmitting the data, routing the data, network paths, servers, bandwidth and many more. This means that the professionals of information technology that is used to conduct the network measurement. Various time, data can be collected with the help and it is never completed, and the slight errors in the packets that loss or slight errors that cannot be detected that helps in leading in technical oversights.

There are common metrics to measure the performance of the newborns incorporating the indicators of packet loss, throughput, bandwidth, latency and jitter.

Latency: latency is very helpful in measuring the delays.

Jitter: Jitter can also be used to detect while using the VOIP applications by measuring the closeness of the VOIP video or audio to the interaction of real physician.

Loss of packets: this means that the number of packets that is successful sent out from one point in the network, but they are unable to get to the destination.

Bandwidth and throughout: these two-work side by side in order to measure the performance of network. Bandwidth means the number of data that can be transferred from one point to another point of network within the stipulated of time. While throughput, is the amount of data that got transmitted from one point to another within the stipulated time.

References for Information Protection and Network Security

[1]. L.J. LaPadula, Proposed network security policy for integrated tactical warning and attack assessment system. NTIS, Virginia, 2013

[2]. V. E. Hampel, Information protection and network security. SPIE, Washington, 2016.

[3]. S.L. Shaffer, & A.R. Simon, Network security. AP Professional, Boston, 2014.

[4]. W. Stallings, Cryptography and network security: Principles and practice. Prentice Hall, New Jersey, 2016.

[5]. P. Kaufman, R. Perlman, and M. Speciner, Network security: Private communication in a public world. Prentice Hall, New Jersey, 2015.

[6]. M. Kaeo, Designing network security. Techmedia, New Delhi, 2018.

[7]. J.E.Canavan,. Fundamentals of network security. Artech House, London, 2015.

[8]. G. B. Varghese and R. Buyya, ‘‘Next generation cloud computing: New trends and research directions,’’ Future Gener. Comput. Syst., vol. 79, pp. 849–861, Feb. 2018

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