Table of Contents
NS-2 simulation and Network Design.
2.1Diagram toillustrate DSDV protocols in an NS-2 Simulator
2.2Diagram illustration of AODV protocol in an NS-2 Simulator
3.Trace File Analysis.
3.1 Architecture of NS-2 Trace Analyzer
NS-2 Simulation Result Analysis
4.1. Performance Metrics.
4.2 Result Analysis.
5.1. Security vulnerabilities.
This is a project to implement a wireless network in a simulation environment and analyze the routing protocols, evaluate them in terms of security and energy efficiency.
Through calculating the interaction between different network entities, software program can model the behavior of a network and this process is called simulation. i.e. routers switches, nodes,etc.
Network design using DSDV protocol
DSDV (Destination Sequent Distance Vector) is defined as atable-driven routing protocol that wears AODV (ad hoc on-demand Distance vector) and DSR (Dynamic source routing are examples of on-demand (reactive) routing protocols.
PDR (Packet Delivery Ratio), Average End-to-End Delay, and Throughput are the three performance metrics, which can be analysed.
To ascertain the performance analysis of each of the above is done while simulating networks with a variety oftopology, traffic, and mobility parameters.
These factors area calculating and choosing shortest path with minimal distance among multiples paths to send a packet from source to destination. A routing table is kept by each module, which lists all reachable destination and the sequence number originated by the destination node.
Network design using AODV protocol
AODV is a reactive protocol that is categorized in the class of Distance Vector Routing Protocols. It brings into start a route discovery process whenever a node has data packets to transmit and no routing path is detected or when the route path has been broken as it approaches the destination node in question
The routing table of each node has the crucial and all necessary information concerning the route from the source of information to destination and sequence numbers to prevent the occurrence of loops. Its mode ofoperation is based on the route request, Route replay, and Route Error.First of all,broadcasts a query request to itsneighbors.If at all it happens that a neighbor has a route to a destination it communicates back with the route reply packet, if the route is not found, the neighbors rebroadcast the query packets to its neighbors until some query packets reach the destination. Route Reply packet then is transmitted back to the the source or route.
Whenever a line break occurs while the routing passing through is still active, the node upstream that t is based on the source to the destination of the route of that breaks Route Error packet to the source.
In trace file analysis each trace line starts with an event descriptor followed by the simulation time which is always in seconds of that event, and from and to the node which identifies the event link.
The next information in the line is for flags. Here we have the packet type and the size (in bytes).
The next field is the flow-id of IP address, where a user can set for each flow. Even though the flow-id field may not be used in the simulation, users can use this field for analysis purposes. The next two fields are the source and destination address inform of “node. Port”
The last field shows the network layer protocol packet sequence number. Note that even with UDP not use a sequence number, NS-2 keeps track of UDP packet sequence number for analysis purposes.
It is divided into three layers namely;
I)The source layer
i)The source layer
The source layer contains to contain the data from the trace file produced through the NS-2 simulation
since processing involves text processing, Unixask utilities are used extensively allows users to do operation on data files e.g. filtering data column by column, summations, and data reformatting task.
The presentation layer reads result data created from the processing layer and then present it inthree forms;
Report - used to display important parameters which are in singled valued
Tables -Tables are used to present the Diffserv policy table
Graphs – For graphs, the trace analyzer links to X graphs for plotting purposes
The performance metrics help in the characterization of the network that is adversely affected by the routing algorithm to bring out the required Quality of service (QoS). The above report and simulation have considered the following metrics;
End-to-End Delay (EED)-which is the time taken forthe message to be delivered completely from the source to the place of destination. Theevaluation of end-to-end delay mostly depend on the following
Throughput- This is an evaluation of node accessibility to pass data through on a network. So, throughput is the average rate of successful message delivery over a communication channel.
Packet Delivery Ratio- is the ratio of total data bits received to total data sent from source to destination.
Control overhead- Is the ratio of control information sent to actual data received at each node.
In this work performance analysis is carried out in the AODV network by varying three parameters i.e. no nodes or pause time or network area while keeping other parameters constant.
A comparative Graph showing different protocols parameters sent, received and dropped
Proper awareness of implications of the applications such as security vulnerabilities, multipath propagation, radio signal interference and other uses is required when designing wireless LANs.
Definition of network security can be identified as protection of information and other resources, from being manipulated within different ways such as corruption and improper use.
The following areas fall under the category of security vulnerabilities.
Passive monitoring Wireless lANs create propagation of data throughout buildings and cities etc. Therefore, it results into radio signals going beyond a given limit of area organisation. Therefore, it enables an unauthorised individual to passively obtained the organisations sensitive data and information using just a laptop which is equipped with a radio card. This happens from a distance without the notice of network security personnel. The issue for passive monitoring is to implement encryption among all client devices and access.
With the connection to WLAN, someone has the potential to access anything in the network, which in this case includes the client devices applications and the servers. This is performed with the knowledge of these some of the companies and organization. They have found a way of shielding themselves from this by locking servers and their application to ensure confidentiality while others fail to do that thus losing some of their information through a hacker who gains to access the WLAN unauthorized thorough the backdoors and the glitches that end up compromising the security of the network accessed.
A man in the middle attack has been one of the ways that hackers use in the gaining of unauthorized access to WLAN.
In the prevention or rather dealing with the unauthorized access is by the installation of an authentication system that facilitates the aid of verification of the user's identity the devices of the clients, and the access points. This is required before allowing them access to WLAN.The credentials such as passwords, usernames are used in the determination of whether access to the network can be granted or not.
A denial-of-service attack is an assault that cancripple or disable a WLAN.Also when using modern security protocols, Wireless networks are highly vulnerable to DoS attacks, which can cause WLAN to slow down to creeping speed or even not functioning. This causes delays on companies that rely fully on a WLAN network which in most cases is costly for some applications, such as wireless security cameras.
In conclusion, the wireless network is very essential in our today’ssociety. This also increases security threats to our data since intruders are also at the forefront in exploring vulnerabilities in our network systems to gain unauthorized access to these systems unknowingly. Therefore,a strong security mechanism should be deployed to secure our network atmosphere while using wireless networks.
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