Section 1.

Question 1.

Question 2.

Question 3.

Question 4.

Section 2.

Question A..

Question B.

Question C.

Question D..

Question E.

Question F.


Virtual Private Networks - Section 1

Virtual Private Networks - Question 1

Often, two-factor authentication as well as double authentication is confused. Dual authentication is essentially a combination of two authentication forms. For double authentication, it does not matter whether these two forms of authentication are from the same element. For example, if you need two passwords, you will have double authentication, but not two-factor authentication. In order for authentication to be truly two-factor, you must use an authentication method that is categorized into two different elements.

The OTP calculation usually includes a timestamp that is estimated from synchronization with the server. The user gets the OTPs that are valid only for a short time, such as 30 seconds to one minute. All tokens must be initialized with different seeds to prevent multiple tokens from generating the same OTP over the same period.

Using dedicated equipment with physical as well as logical measures means that the hardware OTP provides additional protection layers during authentication. Because the OTP lifetime is limited, phishing as well as replay attacks are also disabled. However, because users cannot authenticate if they forget or lose their tokens, this is a financial restriction from a hardware cost as well as a practical perspective.

Virtual Private Networks - Question 2

An approved security best practice is to grant only explicitly granted access as well as deny all others. This includes both verifying entity communications such as authentication, personal, application, as well as device, mapping access control, identity to allowed actions, as well as applying these restrictions.

Both SSL/TLS just as IPSec VPN bolster an assortment of client validation techniques. IPSec utilizes Internet Key Exchange (IKE) form 1 or variant 2 with an advanced endorsement or pre-shared mystery for bi-directional confirmation. A pre-shared mystery is one of the most secure approaches to deal with secure correspondences, yet it is likewise the most authoritative escalated. The SSL/TLS Web server consistently validates with an advanced testament, regardless of how you use it to confirm clients. Both SSL/TLS just as IPSec frameworks bolster endorsement based client verification, however each gives a modest alternative through a different merchant expansion. Most SSL/TLS sellers bolster passwords just as tokens as expansions.

SSL/TLS is perfect for circumstances where access to the framework is firmly controlled, for example, a colleague's work area, an open booth PC, or an individual home PC, or where an introduced declaration can't be executed.

Virtual Private Networks - Question 3

A moderate assault is a sort of digital assault wherein a malignant entertainer embeds himself into a discussion between two gatherings, imitates them, just as gets to data that the two gatherings were attempting to send to one another. . A moderate assault permits a vindictive entertainer to capture or send or get information routed to others without realizing that it is past the point of no return. You can truncate Intermediate assaults in an assortment of ways, including MITM, MitM, and MiM, just as MIM.

MITM assaults can be done in an assortment of approaches to misuse correspondence between different gatherings. Regardless of whether detached or dynamic, MITM assaults discover a way between the client just as the element, just as attempt to conceal data spillage as well as encroachment. Coming up next is a run of the mill path for a middle of the road assault to work the correspondence framework. Incredible web security devices give a visual perspective on web traffic created by both the end client just as port layer of the framework just as convention. Like the email security instrument, this usage ensures the association's web traffic, so the security group can cover more territories.

Virtual Private Networks - Question 4

The idea is that integrated access control is both a system as well as a methodology. Secure access control begins with requesting token-based access. A person must admit that he is doing safe activities as well as that he is responsible for his actions. Also, for the first time in the history of the Internet, the solution can accurately prove with a high level of assurance what the user is doing in a secure environment. This provides a method of accountability.

Security requires or fails everyone's approval. In the current access control model, the responsibility as well as responsibility for secure access are placed on the owners of the secure environment, as well as there is little demand from the authorized individuals. Both parties must participate as well as be responsible for enabling security.

The access control technology failed by designing security access to the lowest common point. The only way to solve this problem is to educate people to use the right security, as well as increase the lowest level of common ground rather than removing important security protocols.

Virtual Private Networks - Section 2

Virtual Private Networks - Question A

Diffie-Hellman key trade is one of the most significant advancements out in the open key cryptography just as is still as often as possible executed in different security conventions today.

This permits two gatherings to safely build up the key that they can use to ensure interchanges. This article examines what it is utilized for, how it works in stages, different varieties, just as security contemplations that should be noted for secure execution.

Virtual Private Networks - Question B

IKE Phase 2 trades are called snappy mode. In a Phase 2 trade, IKE makes just as oversees IPSec SA between frameworks running the IKE daemon. IKE utilizes secure diverts made in the Phase 1 trade to ensure the transmission of key data. The IKE daemon utilizes the/dev/arbitrary gadget to make a key from the irregular number generator. The daemon refreshes the key at a configurable rate. Key data can be utilized with the calculation indicated in the IPSec strategy arrangement document [1].

IKE Phase 2 negotiates the IPSec tunnel by creating the key information for the IPSec tunnel to use (either by using the IKE Phase 1 key as the base or by performing a new key exchange).

Virtual Private Networks - Question C

Generic Route Encapsulation (GRE) is a protocol used to encapsulate a network layer protocol within another network layer protocol. This form of encapsulation is often called tunneling. The main purpose of GRE is to allow devices running a particular network layer protocol to communicate over networks running different network layer protocols. The network receives a native packet from the logical connection circuit, encapsulates the native packet into another network protocol, as well as sends the encapsulated packet to the decapsulation point. An encapsulation point is called a tunnel entry, as well as a decapsulation point is called a tunnel exit. A tunnel is usually a point-to-point virtual link that transfers packets from one endpoint to another.

Key Features

  1. Provides a multi-protocol local network over a single protocol
  2. Provide communication paths to networks that contain protocols
  3. The number of hops is limited. The path between the two computers is
  4. More than 15 hops, computer cannot communicate
  5. Each other However, you can hide some hops.
  6. A network that uses a tunnel

How GRE tunneling as well as IPSec complement each other

GRE has many advantages, but also certain disadvantages. One is a lack of data traffic confidentiality. The solution to this security problem is IPSec. GRE is complementary to each other like IPSec; IPSec provides confidentiality, integrity, as well as authentication, as well as GRE provides the ability to tunnel traffic that cannot be achieved by IPSec alone. Therefore, it is only natural that GRE over IPSec is a common solution [2].

Virtual Private Networks - Question D

In this illustration, the Cooperate Head Quarters is connected to the Easy VPN in IPSec tunnel mode. This is a secure network protocol that authenticates as well as encrypts data packets between the user's configuration location as well as the headquarters on the Internet Protocol network.

IPSec Tunnel Establishment Process -

  1. The first step is to enable the VPN listener at the dynamic IP address of the headquarters system
  2. Create an IPSec tunnel at Easy VPN (location 1)
  3. Create IPSec tunnel at headquarters (location 2)
  4. VPN traffic access rules, encryption keys, as well as parameters must be configured
  5. Verify that VPN tunnel setup starts
  6. Traffic flow is analyzed between two locations as well as initialization succeeds
  7. Tunnel can be used after establishment until session expires
  8. Update session to continue using tunnel

Virtual Private Networks - Question E

VPN encryption is the way toward making sure about the information in the VPN Client-VPN server burrow with the goal that it isn't utilized by anybody.

Essentially, when you run a VPN customer just as associate with a VPN server, the association demand is encoded before it is sent to the server.

They are then unscrambled by the server just as moved to the Internet. Likewise, the mentioned information is encoded again when it is gotten by the server just as then sent to the gadget. When gotten, the information is unscrambled by the VPN customer also as can be seen.

This is the manner by which it works. The VPN customer initially encodes the association demands, sends them to the VPN server, just as the VPN server unscrambles them just as advances them to the Web. The information got is then scrambled by the VPN server just as sent to the VPN customer. The VPN customer decodes they got data. VPN encryption is a calculation that plays out the encryption just as decoding process. These figures can have powerless focuses that can unscramble the encryption. You can maintain a strategic distance from this by utilizing an intricate figure that has a solid encryption key.

From a straightforward perspective, encryption replaces characters just as numbers with information encoding. This permits just approved gatherings to access just as comprehend. A figure speaks to a lot of plainly characterized advances that can be rehashed. These activities as a rule rely upon the assistant data called a key. Without information on this key, it is extremely troublesome or practically difficult to interpret the subsequent information.

The name of the VPN encryption figure is generally given a key length. For instance, Blowfish-128 is a Blowfish figure with a key length of 128 bits. The 256-piece key length is the current "best quality level" [3].

Virtual Private Networks - Question F

This is reasonable for utilizing stateful firewall usage in VPN settings. Stateful Inspection Firewall is a blend of bundle sifting just as application separating. It likewise utilizes a progressively secure firewall innovation called dynamic bundle separating. Because of typical bundle just as application sifting, ports, for example, port 80 on the HTTP are opened by the firewall just as stay open for inbound just as outbound traffic. This shows the system vulnerabilities that programmers can abuse.

Be that as it may, stateful review firewalls open just as close ports when traffic requires, essentially decreasing defenselessness to outside assaults. The most widely recognized firewalls, including Microsoft Proxy Server 2.0, Network Ice's ICEpac, just as significant UNIX arrangements, utilize dynamic bundle separating.

References for Virtual Private Networks

[1] C. J. C. Pena as well as J. Evans, "Performance Evaluation of Software Virtual Private Networks (VPN)", 25 Annual IEEE Conference on Local Computer Networks (LCN), pp. 522-523, November 2000.

[2] J. Lin, C. Chang, as well as W. Chung, "Design, Implementation as well as Performance Evaluation of IP-VPN", IEEE 17 International Conference on Advanced Information Networking as well as Applications, pp. 206-209, March 2003.

[3] S. Al-Khayatt, S. A. Shaikh, B. Akhbar, as well as J. Siddiqi, "A Study of Encrypted, Tunneling Models in Virtual Private Networks", IEEE International Conference on Information Technology: Coding as well as Computing, pp. 139-143, April 2002.

Remember, at the center of any academic work, lies clarity and evidence. Should you need further assistance, do look up to our Computer Science Assignment Help

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