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• Internal Code :
• Subject Code : MN621
• University : Melbourne Institute of Technology
• Subject Name : IT Computer Science

Contents

Section 1.

Case Study 1.

Case Study 2.

Case Study 3.

Section 2.

Solution A..

Solution B.

Solution C.

Solution D..

Solution E.

Solution F.

References.

## Advanced Network Design - Section 1

### Advanced Network Design - Case Study 1

Given that there will be / 24 networks. Therefore, the network is X.X.X.X / 24.

There are 24 networks as well as 8 host bits here. Therefore, we need four subnets with 20 hosts per subnet.

Therefore, 20 hosts require 5 bits. This is because 25 = 32> 20.

Therefore, we assign only 5 bits to each host part.

We now have 27 bits for the network as well as 5 bits for the host.

1. We designed to allocate 5 bits for the host as well as 3 bits for the subnet creation. It has a complete 24 + 3 network as well as 5 host bits.

11111111.11111111.11111111.11100000

= 255.255.255.224

1. The subnet as well as its range is:
2. X.X.00000000 = X.X.X.0 / 24

Range: X.X.X.00000000 to X.X.X.00011111

= X.X.X.0 to X.X.X.31

1. X.X.00100000 = X.X.X.32 / 24

Range: X.X.X.00100000 to X.X.X.00111111

= X.X.X.32 to X.X.X.63

1. X.X.01000000 = X.X.X.64 / 24

Range: X.X.X.01000000 to X.X.X.01011111

= X.X.X.64 to X.X.X.95

1. X.X.01100000 = X.X.X.96 / 24

Range: X.X.X.01100000 to X.X.X.01111111

= X.X.X.96 to X.X.X.127

### Advanced Network Design - Case Study 2

In a various leveled engineering, objects are planned utilizing building square mindsets. The base layer comprises of items that perform low-level, regularly lumbering capacities. The following layer has a somewhat higher capacity just as calls the articles in the lower layer. Each layer above is higher in its capacity. A typical method to depict this tiring is to "conceptual" the subtleties. As such, a portion of the dull subtleties required to play out the capacity are escaped more elevated level items essentially by designating them to bring down levels. In a various leveled engineering, all article calls are down [2].

The organize classes that initially designed IPv4 are not, at this point utilized on the worldwide Internet. Right now, IANA disseminates boorish CIDR-style delivers to the library around the world. As appeared in Figure 2-2, the IPv4 address that you acquire from your ISP is in CIDR group. The system prefix for the CIDR address demonstrates the quantity of IPv4 addresses accessible to has on the system. Note that these host delivers are allocated to interfaces on the host. In the event that the host has numerous physical interfaces, you should dole out a host address to every physical interface being used. The system prefix of the CIDR address additionally characterizes the length of the subnet veil. Most Oracle Solaris orders perceive the CIDR prefix determination for the system subnet veil. In any case, the Oracle Solaris establishment program just as the/and so on/net veil record necessitate that you arrange the subnet cover utilizing specked decimal documentation. These two cases utilize dabbed decimal documentation for the CIDR arrange prefix, as appeared in the accompanying table [1].

### Advanced Network Design - Case Study 3

1. Mission-critical networking products are built with the same infrastructure components as commercial networks. The built-in features that support mission-critical requirements are highlighted as well as grouped into five areas:

Mission Critical Network Offering focuses on support for Mission Critical Services defined in 3GPP. 3GPP Open Standard as well as its global scale is the essence of LTE, providing cost effective communications for both commercial as well as mission-critical users. The continuous development of the 3GPP standard as well as the incremental evolution to 5G ensures that these standards remain the best option to meet the needs of mission-critical users.

1. Uptime is a measure of system reliability, expressed as a percentage of the time that the machine is up as well as available. For IT networks, uptime is a measure of availability for network devices, websites, as well as other services. In many cases, network uptime is measured in percentage tiles, such as "five 9s."This means that the system is running at 99.999% of the time. The goal of network uptime monitoring is to achieve 99.999% availability. This is a downtime of less than five minutes a year. Downtime is a period of time when the system is not running as well as is the opposite of uptime. Network uptime monitoring proactively monitors the entire IT network environment to ensure that it is available as well as functioning. Think of monitoring uptime as a trusted on line security guard 24x7.When the monitoring system detects that a network device or service is down, it immediately notifies the network administrator from a single dashboard, which allows the network administrator to resolve the underlying problem before it becomes serious. The purpose of uptime monitoring is to ensure that network operations are not interrupted as much as possible.
2. Next, expand the performance requirements described above as well as, if possible, create as well as quantify the requirements. This section describes two types of thresholds: general as well as environment-specific. A commonplace edge is an edge that applies to most or all systems. These are experimental standards that are resolved to work in many situations. These apply when there are no condition explicit limits to utilize. Condition explicit limits are resolved for nature of the system venture you are as of now taking a shot at. They are explicit to that condition just as are not normally applied to different systems. These limits can assist you with separating between low just as superior of your system.

## Advanced Network Design - Section 2

### Advanced Network Design - Solution A

The Djikstra’s algorithm starts at a node as well as identifies the shortest possible path to all other nodes.

First, the start node is selected. From this point, all other nodes directly connected to this node are retrieved as well as their values are removed from the current node. The values of the other nodes are written as infinite.

Select the minimum value from the values obtained in the previous step, as well as repeat the previous step with the path value minimized.

This process is repeated until all nodes are discovered.

Represents the distance from A to B as (A, B)

Start with A. (A, A) = 0, (A, C) = 1, (A, D) = 7, as well as (A, E) = 5. The remaining distance from A is assigned infinity.

The minimum step value is (A, C) = 1.

So, now shift to C.C is directly connected to B, E, as well as A. Since the shortest distance of A has already been taken, check B as well as E.

### Advanced Network Design - Solution B

The Bellman-Ford algorithm is a graph search algorithm that finds the shortest path between a particular source vertex as well as all other vertices in a graph. This algorithm is accessible for both weighted just as non-weighted diagrams. The Bellman-Ford calculation is ensured to locate the most limited way in the diagram. It is slower than the Djikstra's calculation, however increasingly flexible in light of the fact that Bellman-Ford can deal with diagrams with negative edge loads. Note that if the chart has a negative cycle, there is no most brief way. The unbounded patterns of negative cycles keep on diminishing the expense of the way (regardless of whether the way length is increasing).This permit Bellman-Ford to recognize a valuable element, a negative cycle [3].

Example

Envision a situation where we have to go to a ball game from home. Two things occur on every street along the street. In the first place, we may have a cost street or we may need to pay a specific measure of cash. Second, somebody we know lives on that road (family, companions, etc.).They can give we cash to assist we with recharging your wallet. We don't simply need to cross the town, yet we need to get over the town with however much cash as could be expected to purchase a wiener. If we know not only the toll road, but also the road where someone can provide money, we can use Belman Ford to plan the best route.

### Advanced Network Design - Solution C

"Internet of Things" is a network of sensors, devices, vehicles, as well as home appliances. The IoT is based on equipment, programming, actuators, network, rationale, just as the capacity to trade data over the Internet for checking just as control. The use of IoT in business just as assembling is known as a machine-to-machine (M2M) association/interface. The lighting framework has three attributes that the key portions of the creating IoT showcase longs for, just as the IoT stage are troublesome to the lighting business. An empowered force framework with a view that contains at least one "things" (generally sensors) that send information to the control framework utilizing a wired or remote association. Sensor information can be prepared through distributed computing, yet is bound to be handled locally (either in the lighting apparatus itself, in the room, or somewhere else in the structure), not just decreasing the time between detecting just as framework reaction (inertness), yet additionally tending to digital security issues. The estimation of IoT for lighting organizations is to utilize lighting installation sensors to produce information, making smart administrations that are viewed as fundamental to purchasers as well as building managers. This is getting more just as progressively alluring to lighting organizations as Solid State Lighting (SSL), which is itself a damaging innovation, is progressively commoditized [4].

### Advanced Network Design - Solution D

The system association point for the Internet has is distinguished utilizing the IP address, which is a 32-piece (IPv4) number. The key purpose behind the adaptability of the Internet arranges layer is the utilization of topology tending to. Not at all like an Ethernet address that distinguishes a host organize interface, paying little heed to area, any place it is constantly associated with the system, just as the IP address of the associated arrange interface relies upon the area in the system topology. We can use topology addressing to aggregate routes to Internet destinations into the forwarding table of the router (a simple example of aggregation is the 18. * Since the IP address in the format is in the MIT network, the external router only needs to maintain routing 18. Use the * entry to correctly forward the packet to the network at MIT. We can also summarize routes as well as exchange them with routers that are participating in the Internet routing protocol. Without aggressive aggregation, the routing system cannot scale to tens of millions of hosts connected to tens of millions of networks in tens of thousands of ISPs as well as organizations [4].

Unfortunately, this abstraction is simple, but as far as the global Internet is concerned, it actually leads to a lot of misunderstanding. The real story of the Internet routing infrastructure is that Internet services are provided by many commercial companies that are generally competing with each other. The cooperation required for global connectivity is at odds with the need to be a profit-making company that is generally profitable. This often happens at the expense of the competition, the same people who need to work with. How this "competitive cooperation" actually gets accomplished (with a lot of room for improvement), as well as how we improve, will provide an interesting study on how good technology research is formed as well as can be challenged by commercial reality.

### Advanced Network Design - Solution E

The traditional MPLS implementation addresses some of the original challenges, but came with a complex array of protocols, a scaling challenge, as well as a strict vendor-specific path calculation algorithm for traffic engineering (TE). In addition, it did not provide native IPv6 support across the entire protocol stack. Segment routing is a technology that addresses the various requirements of different network domains (such as data centers, content delivery networks, as well as metro networks). The basic idea of segment routing is to start with a minimal distributed routing protocol as well as uses the best of them. The simplicity, scalability, resiliency, as well as flexibility of these protocols, combined with increased demand for centralized global control approaches, enable end-to-end application-based traffic control.

## References for Advanced Network Design

[1] J. Leskovec, D. Chakrabarti, J. Kleinberg, C. Faloutsos, and Z. Ghahramani, "Kronecker graphs: An approach to modeling networks," J. Mach. Learn. Res., vol. 11, pp. 985-1042, March 2010.

[2] K. Yoshida, Y. Kikuchi, M. Yamamoto, Y. Fujii, K. Nagami, I. Nakagawa, and H. Esaki, "Inferring PoP-level ISP topology through end-to-end delay measurement," in PAM 2009, pp. 35-44, 2009.

[3] H. Kwong and S.-M. Lee, "On the integer-magic spectra of the corona of two graphs," Congressus Numerantium, pp. 207-222, 2005.

[4] D. Alderson, L. Li, W. Willinger, and J. Doyle, "Understanding internet topology: principles, models, and validation," Networking, IEEE/ACM Transactions on, vol. 13, pp. 1205-1218, dec. 2005. (Pubitemid 43034130)

Remember, at the center of any academic work, lies clarity and evidence. Should you need further assistance, do look up to our Computer Science Assignment Help

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