Software Defined Network Design

  1. Describe the use of Mininet as one of the useful Software Defined Networking (SDN) tools in our own words. Use case example/s would be good to have as a part of the explanation.

Mininet is an emulator that helps in deploying the large networks and that too on the confined resources of a single and simple computer. Mininet is created to enable the research in SDN which is software design networking. Mininet provides the realism and convenience at very less price. If want any alternate of Mininet then it is hardware test beds, these are very fast but very much costly as compared to the Mininet. The other alternate of Mininet is using the simulator but simulators are very slow and sometimes need modification in code but they are cheap. Mininet provides ease in using, the performance is accurate and scalability is good.

There is a requirement to model the hosts, SDN and links controllers. Mininet permits preparing the topologies that is of very large scale and the size of these topologies can go up to 1000 of nodes and it is easy to perform test on these nodes. The command line tools and application programming interface is very simple. It allows the user to create or customize the network very easily, it also helps in sharing and test the SDN network very easily (McKeown et.al, 2008).

Mininet is available freely as an open source software that emulates software design networking controllers and open flow devices. Mininet can also help in simulating the software design network and it also has a controller for doing experiments.

Mininet also consists of default topologies like single, reversed, linear, minimal and tree.

  1. Discuss with example how routing is done in SDN.

A lot of developments are going in the existing technologies of networking. There are many kinds technologies of networking that have been adapted in recent times. The earlier networking that is conventional networking and centralized networking have been very complex and tough to administrator and understand. In conventional networking, it has distinct set of protocols for the hardware devices and for the network layer. As all the devices of network are not from same vendor so it become very difficult to operate such distinct products of distinct vendors (Handigol, 2012).
To get over with these hurdles, a new routing is introduced which is called SDN has been emerged. It provides conflict free set of procedures for communication in and outside of distinct devices of networking and applications. Commonly, routing devices and forwarding devices, the switches and routers are integrated tightly in a single plane as a forwarding logic and controlling logic. This type of distributed management creates complicacy. To minimize the complexity, Software Defined networking split the while plane into two distinct plane such as data and control plane, in this, the control plane perform as a decision maker in the routing while the other plane which is data plane played as forwarding device and it helps in forwarding the packets according to the described set of rules and guidelines. These guidelines and rules are already decided in the control panel.

Software defined networking is an open, programmable and standard platform where users execute their own methods in network production. Control panel consists of SDN controller and it calculates the forwarding path via transfer of packet that takes place within the network. The data plan includes the switches of networking, routers, and other devices of network.

  1. Critique any three software define controller in your own words.

The SDN controller is an application of SDN which is software defined network. It manages the control of flow for enhance the network management and performance of all the applications. The SDN controller uses the protocols and it is run on the server and it give instructions to the switches about the location of sending the packets. The controllers of SDN direct the traffic as per the forwarding policies that places by the operator of network the controllers of SDN behaves in a similar way like an operating system behaves in the computer, the controller of SDN is the operating system of the networks. There is some software that define the controllers are given below:

a). Mininet

Mininet is a network emulator that helps in controlling the end-hosts, routers, switches and all the links which are attached to a single kernel of Linux. Every element are called as hosts. Mininet uses the lightweight virtualization that helps in making a single system and it makes it look like a complete system network that runs on the same kernel, user code and system. Mininet is very useful to the SDN community as it helps in simulating, testing the tools, verification and resources. It is an open source project that hosts on GitHub. It behaves in a way that it is an actual machine that plugged in and can run the programs. The main important feature of Mininet is that, it allows to create customized topology. User can use it in preparing the quite complicated, large and internet like topology. The another most important feature of Mininet is that it helps in packet forwarding customization (Nunes, n.d.).

b). NOX/POX

Nix/Pox is developed by Nicira and Nicira donated it to the community of research and it become an open source in the year 2008. It is used often in academic work research and also in developing the applications of SDN like research of network protocol. Some great applications of NOX are SANE and Ethane. SANE is a method that helps in representing the network in a file system. Ethane is researched by Stanford university for the security of network on access control list. Both, SANE and Ethane shows the efficiency of software defined network. It minimizes the lines of code needed to implement various functions for those functions that take significantly big codes to implement the same functions.

c). Ryu

Ryu is an open source and it is a component-based framework. It is completely implemented in python. The messaging services of Ryu does not support components that are developed in another programming languages. It only supports the components that are developed in python language only. The components of Ryu includes an OpenFlow wire protocol support, messaging, application management, services related to infrastructure, a sequence of reusable libraries, event management and many more (Fernandez, 2013).

  1. Create a topology in Mininet

Mininet includes various number of default technologies like single, reversed, linear, tree, and minimal. Switches in this topology names ad S1 to S6. Hosts are named as h1 to h12. There are two controllers named c1 and c2.

Minimal topology is a simple topology and it contains an OpenFlow switch and hosts. It also helps in creating the link among 1 switch and 2 hosts.

Single topology consists of an OpenFlow switch and n number of hosts.

Reverse topology is same is single one but all are connected in reverse order.

  1. The following configuration needs to be completed.

a. Create appropriate subnets and assign IP addresses to the interfaces.

Network address: 10.0.0.0

Number of subnets: 30

Binary equivalent: 00001010 00000000 0000000 0000000

Decimal values of octet: 128 64 32 8 4 2 1

5 bits are needs to create 30 subnets

1+2+4+8+16-1= 30 subnets

Add 5 high order bits to prepare the subnet mask

128+64+32+16+8=248

New subnet mask: 255. 248. 0.0

b and c. Create a static routing table for the routers as given in above network.

Destination network

Next hop

Interface

10.0.0.0

10.0.0.1

2

11.0.0.0

11.0.0.1

1

12.0.0.0

11.0.0.2

1

13.0.0.0

13.0.0.4

3

14.0.0.0

13.0.0.2

3

15.0.0.0

13.0.0.2

3

16.0.0.0

10.0.0.2

2

d. Demonstrate the IP forwarding controller by creating logic for level two switches and Level three routers.

References for Enabling Innovation in Campus Networks

Handigol, Nikhil, Brandon Heller, Vimal kumar, Jeya kumar, Bob Lantz, and Nick McKeown. "Reproducible network experiments using container-based emulation." In Proceedings of the 8th international conference on Emerging networking experiments and technologies, pp. 253–264. ACM, 2012.

Lantz, Bob, Brandon Heller, and Nick McKeown. "A network in a laptop: rapid prototyping for software-defined networks." In Proceedings of the 9th ACM SIGCOMM Workshop on Hot Topics in Networks, pp. 19. ACM, 2010.

Nunes, B.; Mendonca, M.; Nguyen, X.; Obraczka, K.; Turletti, T., "A Survey of Software-Defined Networking: Past, Present, and Future of Programmable Networks," Communications Surveys & Tutorials, IEEE, Vol. 1, No.99, pp. 18.

McKeown, Nick, Tom Anderson, Hari Balakrishnan, Guru Parulkar, Larry Peterson, Jennifer Rexford, Scott Shenker, and Jonathan Turner. "OpenFlow: enabling innovation in campus networks." ACM SIGCOMM Computer Communication Review 38, No. 2 (2008): 69–74.

Fernandez, Marcial. "Evaluating OpenFlow Controller Paradigms." In ICN 2013, The Twelfth International Conference on Networks, pp. 151–157. 2013.

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