Advanced Tribology: Friction

Abstract on Friction

For Friction tests, the collaboration was estimated between the connection cushion and the level silicon surface. The leg containing the cushion was connected to an example holder that was wavered in the distracting bearing over a length of 30 µm by a piezo-transducer (x-piezo) at a consistent speed (30 µm/s). The silicon tests a 5 mm by 5 mm piece separated from a silicon wafer was joined to the twofold leaf spring as appeared in Figure beneath. For these examinations, the interferometer-based analyzer was utilized as a result of its higher power goals.


  • Friction Force Normal force
  • liquid bridge
  • Proximal Direction
  • Insect body

Introduction: Friction

It is one of the most used force in the industry for joining of different materials and many million of other systems. High quality joining of materials is need of time for industries and it is goal of many researchers to achieve it through different techniques. Welding which is done by friction is one of the common setups used by small to large industries like aluminum, copper, nickel, titanium and its alloys still seem to be less efficient due to its high thermal conductivity and relatively low melting temperature. Friction stir welding (FSW) was invented by The Welding Institute crwl in 1991. FSW a state-of-the art- technique in which a specially designed rotating tool consists of a shoulder and a pin which applies the downward force and friction produced causes to produce heat on the work piece to weld two work pieces clamped together on fixture.

The friction causes the temperature of the work piece to increase to an extent where the material goes into plastic deformation phase but still not molten. After that, the rotation of the tool stirs the material and causes it to now plastically; this is considered a deformation at a temperature under the melting temperature of the material ca

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Client comments:

need an assignment consisting of case study and calculations based on Advanced tribology in this we have.... Friction,wear,lubrication........any of these three topics with calculations in XL sheet. Also i need one paper presentation consisting only one page in PPT with all the congested matter in it.

1. i attached 3 files in which the names with (Topic 8 - writing a paper ) is the topic of the assignment .

2. and template of that assignment.(assessment one paper template docx)

3.instructions to prepare a PPT.using various improvements in its properties and microstructure. Silicon surface along with tangential force is also used as a test setup for checking friction.

Test Setup

For friction tests, the connection was estimated between the connection cushion and the level silicon surface. The leg containing the cushion was appended to an example holder that was swayed the digressive way over a length of 30 km by a piezo transducer (. z-piezo) at a consistent speed (30 Jtm/s). The silicon tests a 5 mm by 5 mm piece severed from a silicon wafer was connected to the twofold leaf spring as appeared in Fig. For these investigations the interferometer-based analyzer was utilized in light of its higher power goals

Friction makes the spring redirect and is estimated by the single-pillar laser interferometer. The deliberate length is then duplicated by the spring constant to get the tangential force. The laser interferometer has a goal of 1 edge. In this manner, with a spring consistent of 50 N/m a tangential force ranges from 50 nN to 1.5 mN was secured. The normal force, movable in a range between 500 nN and 1 mN, was set by a second piezo-transducer (c-piezo) acting in the ordinary bearing. This redirection was adjusted by methods for a fiber-optic length sensor set over the spring. During the tests, the ordinary power was set by extending the z-piezo. The spring constant in the ordinary course was 100 N/m.

By methods for mechanical miniaturized scale positioners the two examples were first drawn closer physically. The last commitment was accomplished by growing the z piezo. At the point when the main digressive avoidance of the spring was identified, contact was built up with a normal blunder of 50 nN (because of mechanical clamor). The normal force can be expanded by expanding the control voltage of the piezo transducer. The total analyzer is appeared in Fig.

To Immobilize Insect, Its Body Was Appended to The Holder Associated with The Z-Pie

zo utilizing sticky tape. The body was situated upside down (the back was joined) and arranged a flat way along the t-hub. The leg bone structure was solidly associated with the example holder utilizing wax. The silicon surface was situated corresponding to the example holder such that restricted the contact of the leg to the connection cushions

As enclosed in the inset of Figure. In this condition the entire bug was moved together with its leg area by intermittent development and withdrawal of the z-piezo. The power following up on the leg was set by the characteristic degree of mechanical connection. It is, subsequently, expected that the cushions were not harmed during the tests. The total analyzer was housed in a natural chamber where both temperature and relative stickiness were kept steady. All examinations were done in air at the overarching temperature of 25° C and a general humidity of 589c.

Schematic of the tester (top view). S, sample, i.e., the last segment of the leg. The body of the insect is not shown. L, leaf spring. The Si sample is located at the lower side of the triangular section of the spring. R, reflector for the laser beam.

Results: Friction

By oscillating the sample along the z-axis (distal-proximal) at low normal force, the authors were able to measure the frictional properties of the pad.

Question: Friction

1. If Measured Length Is 2m and Value of Spring Constant is 1.5N/m Find the TangentIal Force?


Tangential force = measured length x spring constant

Tangential force = 2m x 1.5N/m

Tangential force = 3N

2. Discussion: Friction

Getting Friction test is one of the elite element of every civil work it had to be done with a lot of efforts so the above is a state-of-the friction technique in which , the connection was estimated between the connection cushion and the level silicon surface and it’s a specially designed rotating tool consists of a shoulder and a pin that applies the frictional force. Friction causes to produce heat on the work piece to weld two work pieces clamped together on fixture. Studies have shown that FSW has been successfully applied on many smart materials like AA2219Al-T6, AA6061.T6, 7075A1.T6, 701 OAl-T7651 etc. that are being used in high end applications like aerospace, biomedical, marine, defense etc.

References for Advanced Tribology: Friction

M.Scherge et al Biological Micro-and Nanotribology

Biological micro and Nanotribology

Author: Matthias SchergeStanislav S.Gorb

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