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  • Subject Name : Public health

Ministerial Briefing Paper


Chris Halacas

Executive Director, Population Health Branch


Hon. Jenny Mikakos

Minister for Health, Victoria)

Action required:

For information/advice

Subject: Improve the public health and wellbeing


The Public Health and Wellbeing Act 2008 strengthens the role of the legislature in protecting, improving and strengthening public health in the municipal district. Moreover, the “Municipal Public Health and Wellbeing Plan” (MPHWP) mandatory of council under this Act sets out broad missions, priorities, and goal for the promotion and protection of public health and Welfare in local governments.

By working and encouraging in partnership with the healthcare providers, community groups, government agencies, and inhabitants, the plan highlights the council has played a role to improve the health and well-being of Glen Eira people through several council-led project and program. This offers an outline of the health and wellbeing of Glen Eira people, progress of Council to date and its goals for health and wellbeing. Moreover, the plan delivers a set of goals and strategies for improving consequences for the community.

Significant advances in health prevention and protection over the past few decades have overlooked the expansion and escalation of many risks to health and Wellbeing. But some risk aspects have diminished, others have enlarged as well as new risk aspects have occurred. It has now been proven that over 34% of premature deaths are the effect of chronic preventable disease (Australian Institute of Health and Wellbeing 2012). Even though the Glen Eira communities appreciate a relatively higher level of health and wellbeing, people are not safe to lifestyle risk aspects, like obesity, poor nutrition, sedentary behavior, alcohol, and smoking. We provide chances for enhancement by early prevention and management. Besides, the current provision of information, programs, and services will allow inhabitants for making healthy life decision and confirm a strong future for Glen Eira (Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, 2016).


Key Ethical Considerations Relating to The Decision of Public Health Interventions

Under the Public Health and Wellbeing Act 2008, the Council has various functions related to improve, protect, and promote municipal health of the Glen Eira community. They consist of:

  • making an environment that supports the health of the local community, and reinforces the capacity of the people and community to achieve better health
  • developing and implementing public health programs and policies in the municipal district;
  • introducing, supporting and handling public health planning processes at the level of local or state government;
  • developing and implementing up-to-date public health standards, and prevailing if the health of people in the municipal district is affected;
  • to enhance public health and wellbeing within the local community;
  • supporting and facilitating local agencies whose work affect public health and wellbeing;
  • organizing and providing immunization services to children living or being educated in the municipal district;
  • confirming that the municipal district is kept in a sanitary and clean condition.

These tasks are carried out by Council by the delivery of health promotion and health protection programs locating regions of food safety, infectious disease management, tobacco control, immunization as well as business regulation that create a threat to the communal health. Accordingly, Council provides an extensive range of community infrastructure and services that indirectly or directly influence the environmental, economic, and social impact of health.

Implications of These Ethical Considerations

The state and its municipalities have primary medical care under the Public Health and Wellbeing Act 2008. In order to fulfill this responsibility, the state and local public health authorities have surveillance systems involved in various activities, including monitoring of people's injuries and illnesses. Tests, reports and partner notifications identify individuals and groups with significant public health conditions. Provide comprehensive preventive services such as counseling and education. And it helps ensure access to quality medical services for the poor and vulnerable. State and local governments engage in a variety of regulatory activities to ensure that business conduct itself in ways that are sanitary and safe (through the institution of measure for example licensing, inspections, and nuisance abatements) and that residents involve in excessively risky behavior or pose a threat to another (through the provision of services like directly observed therapy, isolation, and vaccinations), along with they manage the quality of health care provided in the private and public sectors (Department of Health, 2011).

In other words, the councils are fortified to consider how they and their stakeholders, such as “community health services and primary care partnerships” in developing Municipal Public Health and Wellbeing plan, can implement or support the interventions across three main domains of community-related public health practices. And it looks at the needs of different groups of people for the health and well-being of the people as a whole, including those among the elderly and those at risk of deteriorating health.

The healthier corporations with the external agencies and stakeholders are essential to increase determination to discourse health and wellbeing outcome initiative in the municipality. The local or state public health planning agency agencies provide opportunities for Council to support for residents in support of communal health and wellbeing problems to be determined at the local level. Moreover, Council works with the local community group to employ public health initiatives, and community support using the annual community grants funding program. Besides, the stakeholders must build effective and strong partnership with municipal health and Wellbeing service providers to offer quality results, decrease fragmentation and duplication of the effort, and improve the accessibility of communal health and Wellbeing evidence among the public (Department of Health, 2015).

Outline of Key Challenges that Face Councils

Council face significant challenges in arranging, applying and assessing the success of public health interventions. Australia's healthcare system is doing well internationally. This is reflected in higher life expectancy and lower infant mortality. These improvements are now under threat as their healthcare system expands with increasing burden on the elderly, chronic illness along with their increasingly integrated healthcare system. Health inequalities among the most disadvantaged and least disadvantaged citizens still persist, and the apostles reminded us that there is no area for complacency or inertia in remodeling our health care system. There is a near universal agreement that public healthcare systems must focus on preventing and better managing chronic illnesses. These include improved communication between indigenous communities, especially primary, focused and rehabilitation services, and an innovative approach to providing healthcare to rural and remote communities, focusing on the needs of the people. Different approaches need to be developed. It does not feel comfortable to do so due to the difficulty of any management, focusing on isolated episodes of service charge and intensive care, increasing the outpatient costs of the patient and the shortage of energy crisis. The list of health problems facing the upcoming federal government may not be accurate, but Australians can maintain or improve their current level of health and well-being if their staff and community are fully involved.

The capability of public health care service is challenged by the senior people of the country to maintain health and Wellbeing, severe and persistent illness to manage and to assist the poor and people with disabilities with health care skills. The average Victorian can expect a healthy life of 73 years. The actual lifespan is about 10 years, but this longevity is often accompanied by increased disability due to chronic illness. Population aging is not the main reason behind the increase in public healthcare spending. While preventive initiatives do not effectively reach the highest risks, services for chronic illness are concentrated in the intensive care unit, with sub-complex connections for general practice and community care.

The increase in treatment costs may be primarily due to advances in treatment technology. Advances in diagnostics and therapy such as new radiation scanners, biological therapy, minimally invasive surgery and synthetics are often costly. These lists of Medicare or Pharmaceutical Benefit Plan (PBS) grants significantly increase availability and utilization and significantly increase community spending. Political pressure has been raised by raising the question of why Australians are not getting new medical advances in all regions due to their non-subsidization.

Australia has an impressive track record of evaluating new drugs under cost-effectiveness policies. However, evaluation of new medical interventions, strategies and other skills is not comprehensive and lacks the rigor of cost-effectiveness applied towards the local community. To address these issues, the Australian Council of Health Ministers created the National Healthcare Workforce Strategy Framework in 2004, but it lacks national leadership and a lack of health and education bureaucracy, public and public-private training. There was none, so implementation failed (Department of Planning and Community Development, 2010).

Access to healthcare is turning out to be less equitable. Out-of-pocket expenses for patients have increased by 50% over the past decade, and some patients are now facing significant barriers to primary care. Australia has always had a healthcare system that relies on public and private funding and provision of services. It is presented as a selected topic. However, the limitations of private health insurance. The surcharge for private health insurance for people living in rural areas is considered unfair. Infant mortality rates have dropped dramatically since the beginning of the last century. However, after decades of progress, children's health has come into contact with a kind of stress in modern life, which is detrimental to longevity and quality of life. Called the “modern paradox,” many Victorian children are not as healthy as their predecessors. Liability issues include: low birth weight. Educational disabilities, aggressive behavior and violence are on the rise. Children in rural and remote areas and in the lowest socio-economic groups are at particular risk. These problems can be exacerbated by the public healthcare commission of the country.

Implications of These Challenges

Strategic guidelines for overall intervention include sewing interventions for priority individuals to reduce inequality in health outcomes. This plan identifies a clear link between disadvantages and avoidable deaths and significantly increases avoidable mortality among people in disadvantaged areas. The plan shows how the burden of illness cannot be fully shared among the population, with some groups and territories in Victoria having knowingly inferior health effects than others, including

To address the growing trend of preventable chronic illness, NPAF should invest in efforts to incorporate active health behaviors into the childhood environment, school, workplace and community through NPAPH. NPAPH gives Victoria the opportunity to apply a system approach to prevent this situation. These include those who survive, learn, work and play, target statewide policies and strategies, and community-level investments to improve their health. The funding for the chosen LGA will enable them to:

  • Develop and establish local resistance workers
  • Create targeted programs and strategies that provide skills and support for improved health
  • Communities support preventive partnerships within communities (e.g. with government, non-governmental organizations, businesses, community members).
  • Supports community involvement and participation in addressing nearby solution
  • Supports health-promoting programs and policies in early childhood services, workplaces, schools, and communities
  • Contribute to research and evaluation.

The council's work to defend, recover and enhance public health in the municipal region by making an environment that cares the health of community members and reinforces the skills of the people and community to accomplish improved health. The state government initiates, supports and manages the public health planning process at the local government level. Stakeholder needs to make and apply public health policies and programs in local government districts. An organization that promotes and supports local agencies whose work affects public health and seeks public health and the well-being of local people. It needs to synchronize and provide immunization services for children living or being cultured in the municipality and also make sure that city stays sanitary and clean condition (Victorian Health Promotion Foundation, 2017).

Conclusion on Ministerial Briefing Paper

As a committee of health issues responsible for monitoring and resolving specific community health issues, a community health improvement process (Psychiatry) is proposed as the basis for cooperation. This process can support shared community goals for health improvement and the implementation of an integrated approach designed to achieve those goals. The community addresses high-priority health issues related to the second type of CHIP cycle, the analysis and implementation cycle. The key elements of this cycle are the choice of partner-level performance measurements using community-level indicators to analyze health issues, evaluate resources, respond and determine respondents, and determine if desired results have been achieved. It's a verdict. It is used. If the community addresses multiple health issues, multiple cycles of simultaneous analysis and applications may begin.

Recommendations on Ministerial Briefing Paper

Building a Sustainable Prevention System

Preventive health requires a system that can coordinate, maintain, and support health care to manage illness, and a comprehensive and integrated system of health care. The effective prevention system has to include.

  • Management and leadership
  • Information system
  • Allocation of funds and resources
  • Workforce development.
  • Partnership

Supports Key Settings for Engagement and Action

To be effective, several strategies to enhance health and wellbeing need the engagement and support of those affected. It is often best achieved in various environments for example schools, workplaces, leisure facilities and healthcare providers. Four priority settings have been identified as the main focus of the activity.

  • Local community and environment
  • Early childhood and educational settings
  • Workplaces

Strengthen Established Public Health Practices

The plan highlights the continuing importance of traditional healthcare sectors, including health protection, health promotion, and preventive health care:

  • Protecting the health of residents of Victoria by confirming that risks to health are recognized, considered and controlled without delay.
  • Keep the Victorian people healthy by providing the information and skills needed to help individuals make healthier choices and help communities lead healthier lives.
  • Preventive health service through population-based screening programs and early intervention procedures.

References for Ministerial Briefing Paper

Australian Institute of Health and Welfare 2016, Glen Eira Wellbeing Report, http://www.communityindicators.net.au/wellbeing_reports/glen_eira

Department of Health 2011, Victorian public health and wellbeing plan 2011–2015, https://www2.health.vic.gov.au/about/publications/researchandreports/Victorian%20Public%20Health%20 and %20Wellbeing%20Plan%202011-2015

Department of Health 2015, Victorian public health and wellbeing plan 2015–2019, https://www2.health.vic.gov.au/about/health-strategies/public-health-wellbeing-plan

Department of Planning and Community Development 2010, Indicators of Community Strength at the Local Government Area Level in Victoria 2008, http://www.dpcd.vic.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0007/132559/Indicators_of_Community_Strength_at_LGA_level_2008_FINAL_low-res.pdf

Victorian Health Promotion Foundation 2017, Preventing Violence against women in Australia Research summary: Addressing the social and economic determinants of mental and physical health, https://www.vichealth.vic.gov.au/media-and-resources/publications/violence-against-women-in-australia-research-summary

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