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As per the World Health Organization Palliative care Australia defines the purpose of palliative care to provide support and clinical services in managing the care of the patient in their difficult times (National Palliative Care Standards, 2018). Palliative care model can be defined from the point of view of patient care center approach or family-care center approach model. The care for palliative phase can be provided in the following phase:
Palliative care aims at lending a helping hand at providing a cure prospect to the patients that might not be having any ray of hope as far as treatment is concerned (Hudson, 2018). Palliative care model Australia is formulated aiming at designing and dispersing a holistic approach, covering all major aspects of the care model.
Palliative care should also aim at keeping a close consideration for patient’s individualised needs, preferences and their own cultural values. The care can only be provided in a successful manner, when there is a strong and robust communication channel established between the patient and the healthcare providers (Kobel, 2019). The process should also be able to ensure smooth facilitation of autonomy of the patient and their families in the process and thus, enhancing the decision-making process by multiple folds.
Death is inevitable for each individual. Palliative care can be useful in assisting smooth transition of life for the patient, especially in their end days of lives (Rosenberg, 2018). The death of the patient is certain to happen but the methods and inculcation of palliative care approach can ease the misery of the patient and helping them with limiting the negative impact of their illness on them as well as their family members. In few cases scenarios palliative care can also delay the process of death of the patient.
The National Palliative Care Standards enunciates and advertises the vision for compassion for the patient and enabling specialist care as per the medical needs of the patient. Utter importance is given to the method of person-care centred delivery and in accordance to the age of the patient. the standards also help in recognizing and segregating patients as per the stratification of the degree of risk they are vulnerable to.
There is a population sect that might require special attention when it comes to palliative care. These population include Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders community (Welch, 2020). These individuals abide by their ethnic and cultural values with highest respect for the same. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders community have experienced significant torture and trauma in their past. There has also been a reluctancy in these communities to acknowledge the healthcare services as the remedy for palliative care. These people are dealing with multiple health-related and personal issues as follow:
These culturally and linguistically diverse communities lack the basic knowledge of the health concept and thus, suffer from multiple social as well as economic disadvantages.
These standards for palliative care have been developed to approach the patient with providing a sense of care, that enables them a better life in their end of days. These services are also formulated keeping a close consideration for targeting each component of health (Sullivan, 20019). These components comprise of the following elements:
These standards ensure that the service model is followed as per the set strict guidelines and with due adherence to the protocol. These are certain agencies that have been helpful in enhancing the productivity of this care delivery model. The names of some of these agencies are enumerated as beneath:
These agencies have been constantly engaged in ensuring continuity of palliative care provision for the patient while delivering them, regulated as per the relevant standards of care.
the standards are driven by few foundational core values included as follow:
Providing palliative care to the patient might not be as easy as it seems. There are multiple challenges that are faced by the healthcare providers while treating the patients in their end days of life (Shepherd, 2020).
The person who is dying has to be considered from a holistic point of view. These aspects should include these following imperative pointers:
More typical cases involve managing end-of-life care for elderlies. These patients might fear loneliness and might not have someone to provide the emotional and physical support. These older individuals can be staying retirement homes, without having any next to kin in family to offer them solace.
There are multiple challenges identified in such given case scenarios as follow:
Death is a complex matter in itself and to deal with the same a strategic and schematic approach should be opted for.
Clinicians should be engaged constantly with patient and their families to help them with complex and emotionally challenging situations.
The challenges can be experienced by the healthcare professionals in other forms as well. These can be reflected as follow:
Coping with an advanced disease can be very challenging for the patient, especially to deal with on daily basis. Care provider have a duty to ensure that optimism should be promoted in these patients. This is also crucial from the point if promoting psychological well-being of the patient and thus, helping in enhancing overall health status of the patient.
Promoting dignity in these patients makes sure that they have the desired honour and respect even in their last days of life. Loss of dignity is found to be closely associated with multiple distress, such as depreciating physical appearance, emotional state of mind and physical state of mind (Brodtkorb, 2017).
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Delaney, L. J. (2018). Patient-centred care as an approach to improving health care in Australia. Collegian, 25(1), 119-123. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.colegn.2017.02.005
Ding, J., Johnson, C. E., & Cook, A. (2018). How we should assess the delivery of end-of-life Care in General Practice: a systematic review. Journal of Palliative Medicine, 21(12), 1790-1805. https://doi.org/10.1089/jpm.2018.0194
Hudson, P., Hall, C., Boughey, A., & Roulston, A. (2018). Bereavement support standards and bereavement care pathway for quality palliative care. Palliative & Supportive Care, 16(4), 375-387. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1478951517000451
Kobel, C., Morris, D., Thompson, C., & Williams, K. E. (2019). Bereavement support in palliative care: a national survey of Australian services. Journal of Palliative Medicine, 22(8), 933-938. https://doi.org/10.1089/jpm.2018.0502
Meier, D. E., Back, A. L., Berman, A., Block, S. D., Corrigan, J. M., & Morrison, R. S. (2017). A national strategy for palliative care. Health Affairs, 36(7), 1265-1273. https://doi.org/10.1377/hlthaff.2017.0164
Mitchell, G. K., Senior, H. E., Johnson, C. E., Fallon-Ferguson, J., Williams, B., Monterosso, L., ... & Nwachukwu, H. T. (2018). Systematic review of general practice end-of-life symptom control. BMJ Supportive & Palliative care, 8(4), 411-420. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjspcare-2017-001374
National palliative care standards, 2018. Retrieved from https://www.health.qld.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0032/697046/PCare-National-Standards-2018a.pdf
Nevin, M., Hynes, G., & Smith, V. (2020). Healthcare providers’ views and experiences of non-specialist palliative care in hospitals: A qualitative systematic review and thematic synthesis. Palliative Medicine, 34(5), 605-618. https://doi.org/10.1177%2F0269216319899335
Rosenberg, J. P., O’Connor, M., & Huang, X. (2018). A qualitative evaluation of Australian palliative care services’ participation in National Palliative Care Standards self-assessment. Progress in Palliative Care, 26(2), 81-87. https://doi.org/10.1080/09699260.2018.1454093
Shepherd, J., Waller, A., Sanson-Fisher, R., Clark, K., & Ball, J. (2020). Where would acute care nurses prefer to receive end-of-life care? A cross-sectional survey. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 103-183. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2020.103683
Sullivan, R., Ugalde, A., Sinclair, C., & Breen, L. J. (2019). Developing a research agenda for adult palliative care: A modified Delphi study. Journal of Palliative Medicine, 22(5), 480-488. https://doi.org/10.1089/jpm.2018.0462
Welch, S., McMillan, F., & Moles, R. (2020). Hospital pharmacy services supporting Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander peoples in Australia: a systematic review. Journal of Pharmacy Practice and Research, 50(3), 191-204. https://doi.org/10.1002/jppr.1666
Woods, J. A., Johnson, C. E., Ngo, H. T., Katzenellenbogen, J. M., Murray, K., & Thompson, S. C. (2020). Symptom-related distress among indigenous Australians in specialist end-of-life care: Findings from the multi-jurisdictional palliative care outcomes collaboration data. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17(9), 31-33. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17093131
Zaghini, F., Fiorini, J., Piredda, M., Fida, R., & Sili, A. (2020). The relationship between nurse managers' leadership style and patients' perception of the quality of the care provided by nurses: Cross sectional survey. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 101, 103-114. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2019.103446
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