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  • Subject Name : IT Computer Science

Networking Protocols, Concepts, and Standards - Answer 1

a) The maximum size of segment b/w layers to the size of MTU – header size

MTU for Ethernet is 1500 bytes.

The size of checksum + TCP header = 160 bits / 20 bytes.

The fixed part of the IPv4 header is 160 bits, or 20 bytes

  • For TCP / IPv4

Overhead = TCP + IP = 40 bytes

Payload = 1500 - 40 = 1460 bytes

Overhead % = 2% (40 * 100 / 1460)

The fixed part of the IPv6 header is 320 bits, or 40 bytes

  • For TCP / IPv6

Overhead = TCP + IP = 60 bytes

Payload = 1500 – 60 = 1440 bytes

Overhead % = 2% (60 * 100 / 1440)

b) Comparison

  • The IPv6 header length is very valuable as compared to the IPv4 header, in the view of IPv6 address size. The size of the IPv4 address is 32-bits in binary but the size of IPv6 is 128-bits in binary.
  • The source and destination address of IPv4 is 32 bits but in the IPv6 source, header and destination all are 128 bits memory.
  • In IPv6 there are no fields in the header but it have development headers and IPv4 header have fields called growth header also have datagram header having length is 20 bytes but we can disarm the effective or efficient features of IPv4 by an IPv4 header.
  • The IPv4 header fields are Internet header length, flags, Id that are not in IPv6 header because there are no fields in IPv6.
  • IPv6 is simple and easy than IPv4.


The length of the next header field in the IPv4 protocol is eight bits and the next header field of the IPv6 is used to store the fundamentals these concepts joins the field of TCP or UDP protocol fields. The possible field length is 8 bits and works for the time time to live field of the IPv4.

c) Because the TCP segment easy to stabilize in the IP packet, which itself used as 64kB. IP packet is confined to 64kB because its length of the header field is addressed as a 16-bit number and the best word length in IP packet is two bytes and 1 byte = 8 bits these 2^16 = 65536.

SDLC and ITSM - Answer 2

1. a) The Move of Focus from Technology to People

In 2020, mechanized models will remain a homogenous network advancement as the initiation of the pushed to alter the experience. In any case, it will besides coming of new types of progress and models that will take independent connecting with progress to the next level. With 2020 a year depicted by the chance of "independent driven sharp spaces" that will emphatically impact independents and the workspace (Garrison N> D.).

  • Hyper-Automation

Computerization has been a bit of a corporate IT and business strategy. It has conduct different central focus not particularly to affiliations yet despite their operators – from increasing laborer security, exclusively in associations, forex, making, to developing master capability portray hyper-automation. Hyper-automation addresses the utilization of various instruments, joined to take an interest, including mechanical approach computerization (RPA), AI, and sharp business the board. Also, recollecting that automation assists with superseding the dedication of workers in physical undertakings, hyper-computerization would like to comparably bolster or even total the dynamic techniques inside an alliance (Garrison N> D.).

  • Better Employee Enablement

It's legitimately difficult to excuse all the discussion regarding expert insight and how censorious it is for affiliations. Also, undoubtedly, things won't stop here for improving representative consideration in it besides being a top model in 2020 as well. The need for operators of what headway can accomplish for them is making. In like manner, research shows that workers are most fulfilled when they're valuable, which is a victory win for everybody (Garrison N> D.).

  • Increase the efficiency of information security

The upsetting rehash of security smash impacts the best of by and large affiliations similarly as free associations. This is inciting affiliations of more rotated around the security of data than at whatever point in late storage (Garrison N> D.).

As specified by a prototype by INAP, 36% of affiliations place electronic security as their standard concern concerning the requirements of IT. In this way, it's nothing astonishing that reliability of data is, and will keep being in 2020, ITSM basic model, continuously wide IT the board, and corporate association and problem the heads attempts(Garrison N> D.).

  • Use of technology while making people points

Despite how essential progression is, it'll in all likelihood never be a more serious need than the perfect individuals. Nowadays, improvement procedure should never again be founded on improving business structures through headway, it should now at long last put individuals at the purpose of the union, considering, be it delegates (as sufficiently ensured about) or clients. It's a model that will be a gigantic factor for ITSM dynamics and attempts in 2020. It's a bit of computerized change – the improvement of client obligation structures – and covers both the devotion choices and experience. These days, clients might want to have the decision to connect with a relationship on their terms and through different stations, for example, phone, email, online frameworks organization, live visits (checking chatbots and conversational AI) (Garrison N> D.)

b) Incident manager

If in software any type of error or incident occurs then its manager's responsibility to handle and solve as soon as possible by which there is no effect on business operations.

Roles and responsibilities

  • If there is a requirement of support to resolve the problem of customer and staff members
  • Responsible for sorting out and orchestrating all the exercises need to execute, screen, and making efficient reports for the product.
  • Monitor and remind the principle of work per Tier
  • There is a responsibility of contact on every point where an incident occurred.
  • It is an incident manager's responsibility on how to perform actions or resolve the incident when it comes.
  • Identify, start, plan and direct scene outlines
  • Observation required on all the incidents or errors and guarantee that the Service Level Agreement between is not be affected.
  • Establish dependable technique improvement cycles where the framework execution, works out.

Change manager

The change manager manages the change required in any type of service to the customer. The manager needs to make services efficient, less risk management, and update the services with required changes from time to time. The role of the change manager will not stop because services need updating on basis of client or market (Raza M.).

Roles and responsibilities of the change manager

  • View and store the requests coming to change the service.
  • Deliver request of change as per category
  • Give priority on changes required to meet business goals.
  • Manage the advancement of changes from improving the services.
  • accept or reject the request for change
  • Convene the change cautioning board (CAB) social events
  • Maintain the structure, testing, while changing the service
  • Work on reducing the impact of change in the product
  • Create an efficient plan for change required
  • Conducts feedback portal after completed work on the required change
  • Maintain documentation after a change like plans, system designs, and blueprint
  • Produce changing reports

c) The spiral model beats the limitations of the waterfall model and angular model because it uses evolutionary strategy and waterfall and the v-shaped model took a shot at the sequential strategy. These models for little activities and spiral model is for huge undertakings. In the waterfall model and angular model, there is a high measure of hazard and sureness however in spiral there is the least measure of hazard is picked for clients. Inspiral there is improvement cycle is quick and highlights included a deliberate way and it isn't fitting for little undertakings as a result of its expense. Essentially, the V-shaped model is utilized for testing and in the spiral, there is a period of testing that defeats all angular determinations. The spiral model is preferable and effective over the waterfall and angular because in the spiral model highlights of the item dated and dissected and the dangers by then of time are distinguished and are settled through prototyping. Consequently, this model is significantly more adaptable contrasted with the waterfall and v-shaped model.

d) Compare waterfall and v-shaped model

Waterfall model V-Shaped model

· Waterfall model provide solutions at low cost

· The V-shaped model provides high cost as compared to waterfall.

· It is a simple model having a set of steps 

· It is an intermediate model.

· It is rigid when think about is flexibility

· It is a little bit flexible as compare to the waterfall.

· It has a sequential execution method.

· It also works on sequential methodology.

· The waterfall model performs actions in a linear way.

· V-model has 2 ways to perform operations.

· Waterfall model can’t be re-used for another product or software

· The V-shaped model can be reused for some of the projects or product development.

· The requirement of the user can only take as the beginning of the development of a product or project.

· In this, the requirement of the user also uses in the beginning.

· The testing of products in the waterfall model is after the complete making of the product.

· But in v-shaped testing and development of product works parallel, in this product will be tested on every step of completion.

· The success rate of the Waterfall model is low because it works on small projects.

· The success rate of the V-shaped model is high as compare to the waterfall but it also used in some large project development.

· It is a continuous process.

· It is a simultaneous process.

· The usage of the waterfall model is low in today’s software engineering.

· V-model is currently used in most of the software engineering.

Waterfall model used to create applications like

  • Customer relationship management frameworks
  • Supply change management

The V-shaped model used in case

  • Testing
  • IT architecture
  • Automotive Industry

References for Network Protocols, SDLC and ITSM

N.A. Retrieved from

Garrison N. D. The top ITSM trends for 2020. Retrieved from

N.A. Emory University: Service management competency center,Incident%20Manager,and%20report%20on%20the%20process

Raza M. Roles and responsibilities of change management. Retrieved from

N.A. Retrieved from,planning%20is%20necessary%20if%20required.&text=There%20is%20high%20amount%20risk,amount%20risk%20in%20spiral%20model.

N.A. Retrieved from

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