Introduction to Research Assignment 

Abstract

Social is derived from a latin word socius which means friend, therefore referring to a person who is able to relate with others in a given organization or society .While Media is plural of the word medium which means tools or outlets used to deliver or store data /information, which include the print media, broadcasting, cinema, photography news media and the advertising. Therefore Social Media refers to platforms such as applications and websites that are design to allow people to share content faster, swiftly and in real time with others. Examples of social media platforms include the likes of Facebook, twitter, WhatsApp, Instagram, short messages (sms), snapchat, ticktok, google, yahoo and many others.

A text is anything that delivers meaning full information to the person who examines it. Mining is the process of turning raw data into meaningful information. Text mining also referred to as text analysis is the process by which untapped data sources are transformed into high quality information.

Data collection has been used to target individuals, organization and even society through blackmails, campaign, fraud investigation and even to personalize users, making it a source of crime in modern world. A large portion of users have multiple account ,which needs to be segmented and scored through user of specific personal details to minimize the duplication of data. Statistical biased data will not account for the inactive users of social media. Therefore, data related problems arising from the process needs improvement by improving data security and accuracy.

Major type of social media analysis and text mining preferred to overcome the upcoming challenges are opinion mining, Trends analysis, customer engagement and politics. Through this data will be measured, managed and popularized to the diverse social media platforms. It is important to note that this can be enhanced through structural equation model to reflect indirect casual relationships and construct latent variables that may arise in future, which will enable gathering bigger data samples and incorporation of new variables in model tested.

Illumination of new opportunities of acquiring data and tools of socializing, with our endeavors of employing the good which is improving the insecurities and accuracy of data to tame the bad which is the fraud in social media with the help of the ugly which for this case is the users, to deepen our understanding of the ever growing and continuously evolving data and provide solutions through innovation in interdisciplinary and collaborative text mining in social media,

Introduction to Social Media and Text Mining

Cybercrime is an offense committed by an individual involving computers or digital devices, targeting users in the social media world. With involving Increase in the trend of growing technology in recent future, user have grown font of interacting more in social media platforms, even to un excited of working virtually away from physical interaction. Criminals have improvised new way to committee crime, using text mining abilities to extract data from the social networks sites and apps .bumming and expanding at an alarming rate activities such as blackmailing, killing, cyber trolling, cyber prediction etc. , have been conducted in mobile phones , websites and other sources. Most of these crimes are text formation which is a tedious work to trace the criminal activities, identification and increasing the crime and identifying the criminals involves crime process similar to text mining (Sameera, 2019).

Criminology has come up with a suitable technique that describes the complexity of relationship between crime datasets using text mining. Being the effective and best way of extracting criminal activities, their algorithms continuously monitors for suspicious words , symbols even if they are In short form or phrases against the social graph of the user .This information is usually filtered using social graph based text mining and accessing their profile found .

Although there is a saying that states that “prevention is better than cure”, despite the deterrent measures to prevent and control cyber-crime, there may still be a breach .Forensics experts will be called in case of such an occurrence, to conduct a sound digital forensic investigation analysts, reconstruction and documentation of the crime scene and present the evidence to appropriate jury for conviction.

Social Media and Text Mining Related Work

With the use of qualitative data, which involves non numeric information such as interview transcript, video ,audio recordings and notes . Crimes committed on social media can be investigated, analyzed narrated, frame worked e.tc to achieve better information to be used to solve the cases.

Through Content analysis, categorical data gathered from behavioral or verbal activities is classified, summarized and tabulated into data which is meaningful for investigation of crimes committed in social media platforms. Moreover, by use of narrative data analysis to reformulate stories presented by respondent considering context of each case and unique experience of each respondent to find out the relations between them. Unlike the previous means of methodologies used to gather information, qualitative data analysis is discourse analysis which monitoring natural occurring talks and various forms of written text.

Most effective methodology type of qualitative analysis is the frame work which entails a more advanced method that involves several stages such as identifying a thematic framework, coding, charting, mapping familiarization and interpretation.

Another method preferred way of accessing information is by starting a study of a single formula of theory then additional cases are examined to see if they contribute into the crimes committed via social platforms. Data analysis forms the social media platforms can be conducted through this process:

Step 1: Development and applying codes

Using of categorical meaningful data referred to as code, which is a word or a short phrase that represents the idea of a crime committed. A lot of elements such as a behavior of an individual, activities conducted by a clustered group or even events organize can be created to filter the information. Steps of creating such a code include the following.

  1. Open coding, organization of acquired details from individual or a group to make a substantial meaning.
  2. Axial coding, finding the interconnection and links of various categories of codes together to give a relatable meaning. Such as how individuals who conduct the black market are interrelated to politics and the terrorist in real world are related.
  3. Selective coding. Formulating a story by combining the data acquired through connecting the various category of a code

Coding can be done either manual or using data analysis software such as NVivo, Alas ti 6.0, hyper research 2.8 etc. Using Folders, files cabinets, wallets etc. To gather information that an example of similar theme or idea.

Step 2 Identifying themes, patterns and relationships.

Unlike qualitative method of analyzing data acquired from social media their so derived or specific way of writing a code to find expected output, but there is themes, patterns and relationship used within responses of a simple group members in relation to codes that have been specified in previous stages.

The most specific and definite way of acquiring such information is through the following steps

  1. Word and phrase repetitions- scanning primary data for phrases and word most preferably used by the respondent to pass information as well as the phrases acquired from unusual emotions. Examples are child pornography, computer, cyber etc.
  2. Primary and secondary data comparison – comparing the findings of interviews, observation and filtered data with findings of literature review and discussing difference between them
  3. Searching for missing information – cyber terrorist usually like to leave specific words behind to prevent the authority from discovering them. But through finding this missing patters in a phrase or statement gangs and terrorist can be monitored although expecting them to be mention at the end of the day.
  4. Metaphors- and analogues-by comparing phenomena from different offenses committed via the internet through data gathering. The difference and similarities can be derived to come up with a better and defined answer to such problems.

Step 3 Summarizing the data

Our goals in this study are to analysis and describe the content of communication from social media and compare the data acquired from each other. We focus on cybercrime because we are interested in what the user might learn about security from each of these examples such as identity theft, fraud, virus etc. Through this method users can learn about security, in contrast to formal education in different level of formal learning in schools user can learn from social media would through encountering persons as they socialize ,reading articles and by even surfing or searching the web (Emilee, 2015).

Articles

The author description in paper explores the nature of groups engaged in cybercrime. It briefly describes the definition of scope of cybercrime, theoretical and empirical challenges in reference to the known cyber offenders and the role of organized groups. By giving a vivid description and example of state offenders including state actors by illustrating known cases of the individual, group behavioral and motivations. Different crimes and different forms of criminal organizations are elaborated drawing on the typical suggested by (McGuire, 2012).It is certain that a wide range of organization structure is involved in cybercrime .enterprise or profitable activities and cybercrimes committed by state actors appear to require leadership, structure and specialization. By contrast protest activity tends to less organized with weak (if any) chain of command.

Comparing individual offenders and criminal organization reveals that both possess impressive skills. Despite the formidable skills of some individual, the organization is regard as a bigger threat due to its diversity and availability of resource hence extreme extra ordinary. This was evident in case of state cyber activity, despite the fact that the work of Drink or Die, Dream board and unlimited Operation all showed considerable complexity and sophistication

The study of organization cybercrime is at its infancy. With the ever changing and evolving world new technologies offers new opportunity for criminals who seek to exploit .in order to track the criminal activities there will be important to track the evolution of technology.

Proposed Research (Fraud)

Fraud can be best described as any act or activity that has an intent of personal gain with the expense of victims. With increase in cybercrimes, fraud has been of the major issue in social media platforms. Cyber criminals have mastered the art of manipulating data to scam users through various platforms; of recent past blackmail was one of the treat that is still ever growing to endangered lives and livelihood of loved ones. Tackling this issues with vast experience in problems related to unauthorized access and possession of personal data which is most evident form the spam messages we get in our daily lives.

4.1 Problem statement

Organizations such as pirate bay and dark market are involved in the extraction of personal data which is used to blackmail individual and organizations. They take advantage of freedom of information to exploit other individuals exploiting individuals with distinctive aims. However the profit motive of the organization is more apparent than those of an individual.

4.2 Objectives

Securing personal or organization data has been a key objective by the ant cybercrime threat unit, nevertheless monitoring of upcoming technology and social media platforms will ease the crimes committed by the criminals (if not to finish it all)

4.3 Expected outcome and significance

With availability of data security and privacy fewer impersonation are convicted, offenders who committee cybercrimes such as fraud will lead less vulnerable data of individual in the society. Misinformation of person will reduce since only approve data will be used.

4.4 Method and innovation

Through data encryption, user identification and verification, by the user and ant cybercrime organization the data and information passed through social media platform can be secured. This has to go through a process of filtering to convert sent and store data to be encrypted from cyber criminals and decrypted when restoring (retrieving ) and receiving by same or alternative user.

Diagrm 1

data monitoring flow chart

In this process the user entering or storing information on social media platform has to enter unique identity and stated secret information which is encrypted using a unique key into a cipher .The only person who can retrieve the information is user who has to verify his/ her identity and also has to have the unique key. The data monitoring body which deals with cybercrimes will be only allowed to view user data for text mining and filtering.

Diagram 2 (Data/text mining)

Data/text mining

The process above deeply demonstrates how data acquired from the internet is analyzed and filtered. The first step entails data capturing from the social media platform (network) from the store data in the data centers which was initially sent by the user as demonstrated by diagram 1.Then is simplified into specific person, phrases , word for easier analyzation of data through the code created or the programs used to monitor the specific words, this process is further simplified in extraction to simplest form either in binary or symbols which can only be detected by easily by machines unlike the human by targeting key words such as “attack”. A copy of simplified data is send to profiling to be viewed by the human analyst for clusters and another copy sent for cybercrime detection.

The process further goes through a decision if it is a threat to be sent to the relevant authority in case a threat or crime is detected by the system else if there is a slight anomaly it is sent back to a process to detect an anomaly score. This filtered data is summarized and sent to the human analyst the detected novel attack from anomaly detection process is sent for summarization and human analyst. The profiling, the summarized data and detected novels attacks are monitored by the human analysist for summarization and characterization of attacks in case there is any .This information is sent back to the known data attack detection after being labelled.

This process ensure thorough analysis of data for maximization of threat or crime detection through simplification and repetition of various processes under the supervision of an human analyst to give a most accurate and most efficient data mining process in social media platforms.

Diagram 3 (setting up security access identity)

setting up security access identity

Diagram 4 (unauthorized user denied access)

unauthorized user denied access

This can be demonstrated by various account such as Facebook, twitter and event personal accounts. When a user enters a wrong user log in pin it notifies the user that the entered information is wrong as shown in diagram 3 and 4.This prevents unauthorized access to personal data .When it comes to data filtration and mining it is easily capture by social media in case an individual wants to post a content that is not allowed such as pornographic content by the media platform such as Instagram , the content is revoked , deleted and the users account can be terminated depending on the regulations of the media platform. The only way in which they can detect such content is through vigorously monitoring every individual post. The best example of such a case is shown in the diagram 5 below.

Diagram 5

vigorously monitoring

Conclusion on Social Media and Text Mining 

Text/ data mining needs to improve and improvise with the changing technology in social media platform .With the ever growing tech in the current world, personal and organization data has been targeted for personal gains, this has led to the rise of the number of criminal activities conducted through social ,media platforms. With the aid of search programs and proposal we can reduce the crime rates and secure data transmitted through such a media. Governments and bigger organization should not tolerate such activities and even ban the related software which creates a platform to benefit these cold hearted human beings.

Data security is such a diverse entity to be handled by organizational and governments’ even individuals should put into practice to secure their data through all social media platforms. In this context we have to take all precaution measures and fight against cybercrimes to safe guard the past, present and future of our data from being manipulated. Fraud has shown that data acquired by an unauthorized personnel or organization may lead to a lot of conflict between the user and the criminals. Such acts of violence may get to an extreme end of leading to a war between countries with who have been found guilty of manipulating people’s data. The best case scenario is the own going case in united states of America parliament to close ticktok app from operating within its states since it is assume to have given access to china organizations to USA citizens details.

References for Social Media and Text Mining Assignment

Emilee Rader , Rick Wash. journal of cyber security , volume 1, issue 1, September 2015 page 121-144

McGuire, M. (2012). Organised crime in the digital age. :London: John Grieve center for policing and security.

Sameera k., Vishwakarma p (2019) cybercrime: to detect suspected user’s chat using text mining. In Satapathy S., Joshi A .(eds)Information and communication technology for intelligent system . Smart innovation, system s and technologies Vol 16.springer, Singapore

Remember, at the center of any academic work, lies clarity and evidence. Should you need further assistance, do look up to our Computer Science Assignment Help

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