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Relocation of Mokopane Villages by Anglo-Americans to Make Way for High Material Consumption Mining Activities

Table of Contents

2.1 Introduction.

What is their sustainable mining strategy?.

2.2 Application in context to cultural & Cultural theme.

2.3 Application of Ecology Theme.

2.4 Application of Mainstream Economics Theme.

2.5 Synthesis of Themes.

2.6 Conclusion.

2.1 Introduction to Sustainable Development

Background

Sustainable development as argued by Haughton (1999), lies in equality, social justice, as well as that of biodiversity value, it involves the inclusion of those for whom development is intended. Moreover, ensuring of equitable treatment at the ground levels instigates Sustainable development in terms of expression associated with contemporary discourse development. On the other hand, despite over the years its ubiquity along with accumulated popularity, the concept remains unclear. People continue to ask the meaning of the questions about the entail’s history based on the practice of development theory mentioned in this paper that aims to explain unsustainable transition that contributes to SD discourse. This study will continue to demonstrate the argument against the conventional economic approach with those of the superficial/minimalist approach in accomplishing the socio-ecological objectives.

Anglo-American plc

Anglo American plc is a global publicly trading resource company dealing in largest platinum mining operations with offices in Johannesburg as well as London with headquarters in the same city. They arrived in the Mokopane region in province of Limpopo in late 80’s coexisting with the existing villagers with air pollution problem due to mining activities further risking villagers inhabitation environment. The mine developed rapidly but further testing confirmed the existence of more platinum beneath the villages. They was unable to expand as per their goals as they were hesitant of their mining activities due to the villages residing on the market place where the mining is yet to take place. They proposed a relocation plan on behalf of the villages to carry out their mining operations (Angloamerican.com, 2020).

Values of Anglo – American plc Corporate Social Investment arm (Sustainability Department).

According to an Anglo-American site, their motto stands on "Offer excellence in sustainability" making sustainability as a fundamental strategy in which the values being sustainable operational operating communities, the safety includes employee’s health, and that of environmental sustainability. Conducting core business with ambition to build and maintain beneficial stakeholder’s relationship including government and the rural mining communities aiming toward a common sustainable development objective (Angloamerican.com, 2020).

To solve environmental problems the villagers, socio-economic along with compliance problems were taken under consideration. As per believe a very positive impact builds up on the upliftment of their communities where they operate (Angloamerican.com, 2020).

Sustainable Mining Strategy

Anglo-American plc's sustainable mining strategy indicates that has in-depth strategic internal along with external engagement. It takes under consideration those aspects like opportunities and risks analysis that includes Sustainable Development Goals of UN with regulatory requirements in mining law strategy. This goes beyond compliance have a more strategic along with a holistic impact including mutual reinforce elements transforming in a positive way. Both locally as well as globally even the stakeholders perceive the business (southafrica.angloamerican.com, 2020).

Anglo-American’s Sustainable Development of host regions strategy:

The plan required for development of host community’s socio-economic problems are associated with Anglo-American plc’s opportunity search based on company's strategy of implementing a long-term goal based on sustainability. It targets to work with community, church, other business institutions, the non-profit sector, the state, along with universities.

How is Anglo-American mining done?

After they start to explore earth’s hidden minerals, a social license is issued after they make their discovery and enable digging or mining without exhausting the nature’s resources. Mining is carried out by not harming humans and that of the environment. They also claim that its extraction is carried out sustainably.

2.2 Application in Context to Cultural & Cultural Theme

Introduction

From Part A, it is quite obvious that the report "Our common future" has left vagueness in trying to link the poverty stricken people’s living needs satisfaction significantly as well as considering environmental protection paving economic growth. In this context, the company can say that it is a man who destroys nature on behalf of its use (Hopwood et al. 2005).

From Part A, it can also be conferred that sustainable development on behalf of the wealthy often means natural resource’s overexploitation by resource owners. This aspect is measured in terms of money which contrasts with the initiative of developing poor countries. To survive Human’s needs to consume resources at the same time as protecting to serve the future needs. In most cases, exploitation of fossils, exported to poor countries representing developmental exploitation (Blewitt, 2008).

Previous to Mining activities:

I grew up in the village of Ga-Pila with this as my experience:

The harmonious villagers lived in strong community of links helping each other to plough their fields. They completely depend on agriculture with access to animal’s grazing as well as cultivable huge land. Access to rivers along with dams forms the base of their irrigational culture. They dwell in Kuccha houses made up of cow dung painted mud bricks up to the 80’s, from when some of the community members used large cement made bricks to build Puccha houses (Mathabatha, 2011).

They produced ninety percent of their daily food and add toward school’s construction. Before 1994 the year of electrification they used natural energy from manure, wood, and that of dry corn placed under a cooking cob. The wealthiest community members uses gas stoves along with energy producing generators with swampy land along their houses to build their house garden with plants and trees blocking the dust. Grandparents with the mothers went to mountain forest while harvesting the fruits from native medicinal plants as they are capable of treating illnesses with home available remedies. Even from part A it can be stated that sustainable development was practised by the villagers till the mining industry came in the being (Mathabatha, 2011).

Special occasions that is a spiritually traditional initiation, or funerals, on weddings they slaughtered their animals with diet consisting mainly of porridges, fruits, vegetable, milks, and fermented insects like grasshoppers and Mopani worms. They would only sell if they urgently needed money to pay on behalf of their children's higher education costs. After the harvest, they will have a big 80 kilograms of dried beans which they trade for 80 kilograms of flour as well as oil cakes to feed their families. Old men told stories at bedtime sitting in front of the open fire of a charcoal stove. They take pride in almost every aspect of language they use, the heritage culture they exhibit, their own land, including livestock. As the men worked as Gauteng’s workers the women prefers to stay at village to raise both children and farm using "Letsema / Ilima" system in building houses, growing, harvesting, as well as brewing of traditional beer (Seth Nthai, 2009).

Villagers’ relocation to make way for mining activities

UK based non-profit organization named ActionAid has studied relocation of village effects on the villagers considering their environment. My parents with other villagers, moved away to my city. Modern houses were built for them, not sustainable due to the development of crack in the houses although the villager’s weren’t allowed to obtain the before resettlement same house. As a resettlement aid with R5000 compensation and the new houses were too small on behalf of agriculture and that of the allocations allocated to agriculture was too small. Before moving, the villagers owned large agricultural land and that of were able to maintain a harvest and stock corn for 5 years. They traded the bag of corn for a 50 kg meal as well as were also paid little. Suddenly, they ended up in a city as a place along with started fighting on behalf of food.

Because of a lack in agricultural activity, they were suddenly unable to afford their own food. Their lives became difficult as they had no other competence than agriculture and have to leave their old town cemetery primarily. The mine subsided for buses fare to transport mourners in old cemeteries with graves but eventually ended that (ActionAid, 2008). The rich continued transporting mourners to the ancient grave contrarily the poorest uses the new burial site, meaning that they got divided into two burial places, going against the will of the deceased owing to financial constraints who previously has expressed wish of getting buried in old site. Long after their movement, they ran out of water just because water quality degraded and became unsafe for human consumption forcing the villagers to purchase water from the mine stores (Dansereau, 2010).

Villagers resisted the idea of movement and remained in extraction town but the municipality cut electricity and that of water supplies forcing them to move but they stayed back in old town as they thought it to be a non-sustainable step. As, they claimed of governmental conspiracy and human rights violation due to their exclusion from the plan, allowing the mines to privatize El Sitio to increase tax revenues. On their ancestral lands, 1,800 hectares on behalf of agriculture lost during the displacement of the community with their relocation that began in the year 2001 (ActionAid, 2008).

After relocation, all households supply along with running water was introduced by the municipality with low quality products’ unfit for human consumption leading to diarrhoea. My parents, among the thousands of relocated families were unable to do any types of domestic farming as the new plots were very small hence was left with little food. The cemetery was in old town and at Easter every year, they hired a transport to clean the graves that was far too away. There was no underground water boring privilege yet some families tried but all in vein were left with the 2 choices of using the contaminated water or buying the bottled water (ActionAid, 2008).

Over the years, the taps dried up dragging villages into acute water crisis even the community based closed ties got damaged by politicians due to their intensions to carry out programs. The various dissident groups did not surrender or speaking in context to each other. The families stopped supporting each other and a got separated even duel in different groups was observed by me during my visit to new village.

Abel Mogale, aged, during the start of resettlement had lost his 2 hectares of land in which he produced beans, potatoes, and that of corn was one of such person. After resettlement when he tried to plough his fields, the police restricted him by stating it is prohibited as per instructions from mining company now, he had to support his family with his meagre pension (ActionAid, 2008).

29 families do not want in context to abandon their ancestral lands as well as settle in a new canton because their roots are deeply rooted in rural areas. Families say that they lived in peace before resettlement as they felt belonged with a connection in context to the place of their birth and upbringing. At least their families had access to basic items like electricity, water, as well as with food production ability (ActionAid 2008).

Another villager of Ga-Pila is Rose Dlabela like Abel, she used to depend on agriculture to to support her family by growing sweet potatoes, squash, and that of corn on her farm. Since the relocation, limited food supply has forced her family to sleep with hunger with development of compromised health conditions. They cannot buy fresh fruits as well as vegetables by not eating healthily (ActionAid2008).

The whole scenario can be more clearly understood when used with Part A, which has conferred that the Western world has destroyed on behalf of many centuries the culture, spirituality, as well as well-being of Third World countries that use civilization. Destruction was introduced into the population by damaging the exploitation of natural resources. The main aim was to destroy as well as strip indigenous peoples off their minerals, their cultural land heritage that grew with their relationships, religions, in the form of modernization attempts toward the change into civilized communities (Blewitt, 2008).

Graves in the homesteads had to be relocated to a cemetery to make way for the mine

Image by ActionAid:

Following African cultural beliefs, exhuming bodies considered to be both dangerous as well as taboo. The gods would be angry as per their belief would cause disaster this type of a spiritual and that of villager’s cultural life gets destroyed by Western culture. The modernization destroyed the civilization, as well as people, felt that they had no legal rights fighting Anglo-Americans (ActionAid, 2008).

Part A made it possible to meet the development needs of people without compromising their cultural, believe, spiritual, and that of their way of doing things. Social justice Access is considered important in which people must fight, enjoys better life’s quality, and that of accessing justice, clean safe water, and environmental safety, clean production, quality, and that of sustainable food on behalf of future generations. But what is seen here is something contrary (ActionAid, 2008).

Establishment of section 21 companies within communities:

Section 21 has have been created by mining companies to meet the progress needs of displaced host communities. City in which the mining operations take place is financed by the mining companies that have mandated section 21 to companies ensuring the communities to represent as well as include in their community projects as said by the mining company. The communities are in an opinion that these mining companies do not perform any work except for serving the selected civil servant's interests going further claims that these mining companies use and control them for exploitation. Field training participation preferred to communities aimed toward fighting mining companies for interests. Section 21 comprises of mining companies that are 100% funded without intelligibility, responsibility, and that of democracy. In villager’s opinion very high operational secrecy is maintained by these companies (ActionAid 2008).

2.3 Application of Ecology Theme

In part A, ecological perspectives of bio-diverse nature are important actors in context to Anthropocene vision that considers man’s domination over the environment (Blewitt, 2008)

On the other hand, the current NEMA while coping with exploitation and that of environmental pollution in context to blasting activities by mines generate dust(in high quality), resulting in air pollution.

ActionAid (2008) was instrumental in approving water analysis using an old village sample with contaminated water sources at Anglo-American mines in four locations. Samples were also taken from neighboring schools, confirming water contamination. Mining caused environmental pollution daily of contaminating drinking water. These activities include rocks explosion with dust spreading all around the villages and villagers have never been screened.

Anglo-American plc uses too much material and that of consumes energy. Its water consumption for mining is very high. Its energy is produced from fossil fuels. Stating that they contributed toward villages’ water security at the place of their operation as is false (ActionAid, 2008).

NEMA, in context to environmental protection, failed in their implementations as their policies didn’t apply to mine companies. Evidence can be obtained from Part A, where it has been confirmed that NEMA is SA’s environmental protection law since1998. It Stipulates humans from polluting or degrading the environment, be the reason for the biodiversity extinction as well as the use of fossil fuels this law is a national anthropocentric policy (Hatting, 2001).

2.4 Application of Mainstream Economics Theme

The Anglo-American branch of plc in Mokopane is the world's biggest producer of platinum, which means it makes more profit and that of pays more taxes in context to the government. In 2007 Anglo-Americans made a profit of $ 1.75Billion in one year. Anglo-American is headquartered in the United Kingdom and that of being owned by a UK-based company with 74.75%share. Anglo-Americans are making record profits. In 2007, earnings amounted to $ 1.75 billion alongside in 2016, the company claims in context to meet the social needs of communities as per sustainable development report. Jobs on behalf of local communities, community projects, as well as economic growth count for the company’s sustainability success. Their public success story announcement started a clash with villagers at the ground level. They aren’t spending more than 1% income on community development (ActionAid, 2008).

It has been argued in the literature, as per ActionAid (2008), community impacts along with the environment constitute human rights violations. On the other hand, developed countries exploit the poor as well as underdeveloped countries. Most of these companies use many fossil fuels as well as emit the highest levels of carbon. The British and that of South African governments are doing nothing in the context to hold Anglo-Americans accountable on behalf of serious human rights violations and that of environmental damage due to mining activities. Part A also indicates that the government increases tax and sees growth through the collection, establishing developmental infrastructure. Environmental, as well as social issues, are completely overlooked with strong economic growth inequalities; even an increase in poverty was observed with 0 guarantees of high carbon emission reduction.

Their KPI subjected to determine growth and progress for 2016:

Measurement of mainstream progress of economy in the form of a report defined as sustainable development is subjected on materialistic outputs, employment, and that of taxes, with augmented spending.

Augmented Revenue as well as Taxes:

As per Anglo-American sustainable development report (2016), jobs in the platinum sector represent the second-highest in South Africa. It rests solely on government taxes, with an increase in employment, production, tax, as well as profits generation. Production and that of success not concerned with the host village’s aspects of well-being, social progression, equality, the wealth distribution, and that of poverty reduction none of them are declared human socio-political objectives as achieved. Considering its environmental objectives that are vague due to falling sort of DL by 2020. In the context of the achievement, no legislature implements social or environmental objectives. Macro perspective experts suggest decoupling as a solution to the mining company’s problems.

In Part A, the main experts believe that decoupling pressing from economic problems affects the growth targets positively whereas it can be considered as a solution in context to achieving sustainability. Decoupling poses problems that prevent it from working. Decoupling consists in separating environmental problems from growth to reduce damage and that of depletion of resources (Antal & van den Bergh 2013).

Decoupling framework feasible for sustainable transition or not

Decoupling is defined as objectives that are measured by GDP associated with eliminating environmental problems affecting economic growth. Separating environmental problems from economic growth according to macroeconomics can serve as a solution (Mankiw 2004; Krugman 2012).

From the previous section of the study (part A) it also has been conferred that environmental issues decoupling is not guaranteed in the economy driven by conventional high production and that of yields. Decoupling cannot be implemented as it is non-measurable without any current policy resulting in the promotion of extensive use of carbon-emitting non-renewable fossil fuel in mines. With no drop in material consumption, the governments will not be implementing policies that can be benefitting to people as well as the environment. The Anglo-American mine with high emission levels uses a large amount of groundwater in combination with carbon-based fuel as an energy source. Therefore, without major changes in policy decoupling as a solution will not work if not implemented on behalf of Anglo-Americans.

2.5 Synthesis of Themes

The dominant economy has interpreted the word "development" differently as per an argument, is based on economical growth, creation of a job, increase in spending, and that of increase in paid taxes in context to the government. Village relocation was not a lasting transition associated with the violation of the social right of population resettlement causing irreversible environmental damage. The economic perspective is associated with greed, accumulation of materials, and that of the wealth at the cost of poverty with minerals exaction of platinum, chromium, carbon, as well as others. 57% live with R 647 per month as well as 40% with a simple R 440 per month presenting a fact that two million people Limpopo residents live under the bread line and go to bed hungry. Although they live in land that is rich in precious mineral resources like platinum, carbon, and that of chromium (Citizen 2017).

Annual matrix results represent Limpopo as a worst-performing province with 0 pass percentage in schools (SABC 2020). Only a few students receive Anglo-American scholarships, as well as most, still depend on financial aid in context to South African students. Poverty persists despite extensive mining activities and not included in the company's sustainable development programs. Community Projects are imposed without their involvement or addressing their establishment needs. In context to the Covid-19, lockdown the Water and Sanitation Minister had undertaken radical measures in ensuring water via tankers in Limpopo (Government of the Republic of South Africa 2020).

However, from Part A it was conferred that, based on the inequalities that persist in South Africa after democracy, I feel critically for current development from a macroeconomic perspective that escalates inequality in South Africa to a high level in comparison to other countries. the majority of our people live in poverty whereas few are bestowed with most of the capital as well as resources.

While achieving sustainable development all questions recognize the relationship between humans, ecology, and that of the economy defined as political ecology linking ecology with people’s struggle attempting to contribute toward achieving better future objectives (Pezzoli2000).

2.6 Conclusion on Non-Egalitarian Approach to Ecology

ActionAid (2008) concluded by stating that the government should research as well as review bills ensuring resident's inclusion. Must conduct appropriate community consultations, giving residents the consent right in taking care of serious environmental problems caused by the mining business suggesting wealth distribution in shares allocation in context to the communities. In context to sustainable development mapping, the results showed that Anglo-Americans being capable of engaging host communities, and as investigation was completed in April'07 as confirmed by the United Nations Special Report on Adequate Human Housing. The UN report concludes that there can be no stable transition unless progress is initiated by interested parties. People from the affected communities were not involved in their relocation and installation plans but need to be consulted involving them in the core decision making process.

A similar mining company (ActionAid 2006) has unjustly displaced several villages in Limpopo. In context to my experience during the visit, I subjected the transformation of the Ga-Pila village from rainwater to village. The transformation was unjust and not permanent (Rogoff 2012). So, the real issue with the mining community is that the government and the tribal authorities have subjugated the poor rural community drawing benefit from all sides. In this case, decoupling does not work and the conversion was unfair. GDP is not fundamental, but a responsible economic growth measure. The poor are losing their rights in terms of dignity, culture, unity, livelihood, choice, indigenous practice as well as heritage. Drinking water and their basic rights to dwell in a clean environment have been severely violated. In this case, decoupling does not work.

References for Non-Egalitarian Approach to Ecology

ActionAid. 2008. Precious Metal. The impact of Anglo-American on Poor Communities in Limpopo, South Africa. [Online] Available: https://www.actionaid.org.uk/sites/default/files/doc_lib/angloplats_miningreport_aa.pdf.[20 March 2020].

AngloAmerican.com. 2016. Sustainability Report. [Online] Available: https://www.angloamerican.com/~/media/Files/A/Anglo-American-PLC-V2/documents/annual-reporting-2016/downloads/2016-sustainability-report.pdf. [20 March 2020].

Angloamerican.com. 2020, Anglo American, Retrieved from: https://www.angloamerican.com/ [20 March 2020].

Anglo-American.Sustainable Mining Plan.[Online] Available: https://southafrica.angloamerican.com/our-difference/our-sustainable-mining-plan. [20 March 2020].

Antal, M.&van den Bergh C.J.M.2013. Macroeconomics, Financial Crisis and the Environment: Strategies for a Sustainability Transition. Environmental Innovation and Societal Transitions. 6:47– 66.

Blewitt, J. 2008. Understanding Sustainable Development. London: Earthscan.

Citizen.2020. More than 2m people go to bed hungry in Limpopo. [Online] Available: https://citizen.co.za/news/south-africa/1626205/more-than-2m-people-go-to-bed-hungry-in-limpopo/. [20 March 2020].

Dansereau, S., 2010. Comparing Dueling Approaches to the Transformation of South African Mining: Corporate Social Responsibility or Labour Restructuring?. Labour, Capital and Society/Travail, capital et société, pp.63-98.

Government of the Republic of South Africa. 2020. Water and Sanitation delivers water tankers to Limpopo during Coronavirus Covid-19 lockdown. [Online] Available: https://www.gov.za/speeches/water-and-sanitation-delivers-water-tankers-limpopo-during-coronavirus-covid-19-lockdown-2. [06 April 2020].

Haughton, G. 1999. Environmental justice and the sustainable city. Journal of Planning Education and Research 18: 233–243.AIOPS

Hopwood, B., Mellor, M. & O'Brien, G.2005. Sustainable Development: Mapping Different Approaches. Sustainable Development.13:38-52.

Krugman, P. 2012. End This Depression Now. New York: W.W. Norton & Company,

Mankiw, G. 2004. Principles of Macroeconomics. Kentucky: South-Western Cengage Learning.

Mathabatha, M., 2011. The impact of mining companies on community development in the Dilokong and Ga-Pila villages in the Sekhukhune and Waterberg Districts of Limpopo Province (Doctoral dissertation, University of Limpopo (Turfloop Campus)).

National Development Agency.2014.State of Poverty and Its Manifestation in The Nine Provinces of South Africa.[Online] Available: https://www.nda.org.za/assets/resources/CF824421-4FA0-41EE-AB69-4DB10CD0384A/Research_Report_State_of_poverty_in_9_provinces_of_SA.pdf [20 March 2020].

Rogoff, K.S 2012. Rethinking the growth imperative. [Online] Available: http://www.project-syndicate.org/commentary/rethinking-the-growth-imperative.[20 March 2020].

SABC.2020. Nine Limpopo Schools obtain 0% matric pass rate. [Online] Available: https://www.sabcnews.com/sabcnews/nine-limpopo-schools-obtain-0-matric-pass-rate/ [20 March 2020].

Seth Nthai, S.C., 2009. Host communities and mining projects in South Africa: towards an equitable mineral regulation. Obiter30(1), pp.120-130.

Southafrica.angloamerican.com 2020, AngloAmerican, Available: https://southafrica.angloamerican.com/our-difference/our-sustainable-mining-plan [20 March 2020].

Remember, at the center of any academic work, lies clarity and evidence. Should you need further assistance, do look up to our Ecology Assignment Help

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