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The assessment focuses on the different changes that occur through the life span by exploring the developmental stages of the individuals addressed in the given case study. Erik Erikson, a Psychologist proposed eight stages regarding the developmental changes for explaining how people grow-up. These eight stages elucidate the challenges regarding development that is faced by the people at various steps in life (Orenstein & Lewis, 2020). The anticipated universal psychological method is the psychological defensive system whose various parts emerges out and get mature in the eight psychological developmental stages. This covers two imperative concepts of development that include self development and relationship to others. The developmental stages helps in explaining the growth and amendments that occurs through the span of life, these stages of development begin by discrete conversion in physical, psychological, as well as socio-emotional developments (Chung, 2018).
Different theories of developmental psychology have different stages of development. The Erik Erikson’s eight stages of psychosocial development include infancy which is followed by toddlerhood, preschooler, schooler, adolescence, young adulthood, middle adulthood, and the last one the late adulthood. Each of the developmental stage has a clash between two contrasting concepts. For example, the stage of infancy main point of conflict is trust v/s mistrust and likewise, People of all ages experiences various issues (Orenstein & Lewis, 2020). The given case study is of a family that is portraying different developmental stages by each member of the family. The case study develops an understanding of various phases of developmental changes that happen in the lives of people.
Erikson’s stages act as a foundational basis for the treatment of various healing stages of psychological illness. These stages of the psychosocial development could be used by psychological healthcare professionals during the treatment of patients who have been facing an era of amendments and changeable turning points in their lives. When engaged in the suitable context to cultural and social factors, it could be a way for the patients in enhancing the awareness as well as understanding about themselves. Certain stages focuses on the early stages of development in life, they act as an intangible and perhaps actionable conduct for those afterwards in life as well (Malone et al, 2016).
The developmental stage of each family member as analyzed on the basis of Erik Erikson’ s psychosocial development stages from the given case study are:
Tammy’s family is of 5 members. Starting with Tammy, who is 32 years of age shows that she is in the stage of young adulthood. Scott is Tammy’s husband who is 42 years of age and his age shows that he is in the middle adulthood stage of his life. Tammy has three kids out of which one of her son named Oscar, who’s age is 10 years is at stage 4, the early school years and other son Jack is 5 years is at stage 3 i.e., Pre-school years. The third child is a daughter and is the youngest of all; she is just 2 years old and will be considered as a toddler.
Tammy is in young adulthood stage and according to Erik Erikson, young adulthood is the stage in which people often either get married or build up considerable relationships. People with age of 24 years to 40 years are considered to be in this stage. This stage is considered to be more conflicting between the intimacy and isolation, According to the case study Tammy has successfully ended her first relationship and is happy with his new partner, she is also working and expecting a baby all these aspects show that Tammy’s behavior is balanced and according to the stage in which she actually is.
However, Scott (Tammy’s husband) is at his middle adulthood stage of life and this stage is the seventh’s stage out of the eight stages of Erik Erikson’s theory. This stage conflicts between generativity v/s stagnation (Rageliene, 2016) where success and failure is focused and as per the given case study, Scott is being productive, even after his accident he is working at home and selling that products in market in order to raise his kids well and maintain harmony at home. This shows the sense of generativity as well as that Scott is relating to this particular stage of Erik Erikson’s theory.
Tammy’s son Oscar is in early school years that is Erik Erikson’s forth developmental stage this stage. This stage is a stage where the child grows in independence and get aware of himself as an individual and it is the stage where the child often starts comparing himself with others. Either he will develop self-confidence, pride, and will boost up his self esteem or he will criticize himself and develop the feeling of inferiority (Orenstein & Lewis, 2020). In this case study, it has been seen that Oscar’s performance in academics is declining day by day and he finds himself in trouble while playing with other children in playground. This shows that he is on the other path of his stage i.e., inferiority.
Jack is in his pre-school stage where the child gets conflicted between initiative and guilt. Guilt comes when the caregivers criticize the kids that results in feeling guilty for pursuing their desires. However, jack is a happy go lucky little kid and leading this stage of his life very well as he is happy with this new adjustment and has accepted everyone open-heartedly.
At last, the youngest one Mia who is a toddler and even though she is having a little difficulty in adjusting with her new family, she is happy and enjoying being with her brothers and is exploring the things a toddler should do.
The development stage of the family is the parenting stage (Thomas, Liu & Umberson, 2017). Tammy and Scott are progressing through this definite stage of development and this also has some sub-stages and they are:
Stage 1: Learning the cues: the thrash about the parents for interpreting the needs of their infants.
Stage 2: Learning to accept the growth as well the development as the parents in this stage start learning to recognize the loss of control over the toddler.
Stage 3: Learning to separate: In this stage the parent start learning to allow their children for developing them independently.
Stage 4: Learning to accept the rejection: This is where the parents struggle as they have to learn not to intrude and yet to be just there for the kids when they need them.
Stage 5: Learning to construct a new life even after thoroughly been discredited by one's teenager. Here, the parents learn to lead their life independently when the teenager struggles in developing his own identity.
The chosen family development theory here is Duvall’s family developmental theory (Martin, 2018), the major concept of this theory consists of VIII stages along with the VIII basic tasks of the family’s life cycle. Relating the VIII stages and VIII tasks to Tammy’s family:
Tammy and Scott’s family is a family with school children as the eldest child, Oscar is of 10 years of age. As per Duvall’s theory, in a family there are certain basic tasks such as physical assessment, allocation of resources, division of labours, socialization of family members, reproduction, and maintenance of order. All the attributes of basic tasks have been fulfilled by the family as a whole as both of the partners are working together to keep their family harmonized. Scott even after his accident is trying to earn by selling products in market that he made at home and Tammy is also teaching in a primary school and is also good at budgeting which helped her and her family to lead a harmonised life. Both of them are fulfilling the basic requirements of their family.
The health concerns of the family can be psychological as Tammy’s father is depressed and depression is often hereditary. Also, Tammy’s son is showing some unusual behaviour in school this shows that there are often some chances that he may fall into depression. The resilience factors are those attributes that makes a person to be able to adapt well and encourage them to bounce back at normal spontaneously in times of stress. The stress has the potential to manifest family problems, relationship problems, problems in the workplace, serious health problems, or even financial problems. The resilience factor here is the togetherness. Even after being aware by the Oscar’s behavior, the way Scott handled everything like taking him out for a boys camping and then letting him talk is commendable.
The nursing practice that must be implicated here is the provision of effective cognitive behavioral therapy for Oscar. As he is showing symptoms of some psychological issue and it’s better to start such therapies at early stage so as to avoid the serious outcomes of the same. Cognitive behavirol therapy would be preferred because it is nothing but a common type of talk therapy and according to Oscar’s age this would be preferred best. This therapy is affective as some for some people and especially for children talking and discussing has been considered better than taking medication for the treat of depression.
From this assessment it is concluded that the family go through different changes through their life span and by exploring the developmental stages of the individuals addressed in the given case study. The development stage of the family given in the case study is the parenting stage and both Tammy and Scott are progressing through this definite stage of development. The kids are also doing well and are adjusting up to the extent they can and they are happy with this new family. Both of the partners are working together to keep their family harmonized. Scott even after his accident is trying to earn by selling products in market that he made at home and Tammy is also teaching in a primary school and is also good at budgeting which helped her and her family to lead a harmonised life and both of them are successfully fulfilling the basic requirements of their family.
Chung, D. (2018). The eight stages of psychosocial protective development: Developmental psychology. Journal of Behavioral and Brain Science, 8(9), 369-398. doi: 10.4236/jbbs.2018.86024.
Malone, J. C., Liu, S. R., Vaillant, G. E., Rentz, D. M., & Waldinger, R. J. (2016). Midlife Eriksonian psychosocial development: Setting the stage for late-life cognitive and emotional health. Development Psychology, 52(3), 496-508.
Martin, T. F. (2018). Family development theory 30 years later. Journal of Family Theory & Review, 10(1), 49-69.
Orenstein GA & Lewis L. Eriksons stages of psychosocial development. In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2020 Jan. Accessed from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK556096/
Rageliene, T. (2016). Links of Adolescents Identity Development and Relationship with Peers: A Systematic Literature Review. Journal of the Canadian Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 25(2), 97–105.
Thomas, P. A., Liu, H., & Umberson, D. (2017). Family relationships and well-being. Innovation in Aging, 1(3), igx025. https://doi.org/10.1093/geroni/igx025
Vogel-Scibilia, S. E., McNulty, K. C., Baxter, B., Miller, S., Dine, M., Frese, F. J. (2009). The recovery process utilizing Erikson's stages of human development. Community Mental Health Journal, 45(6), 405-14.
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