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Principles of Nursing: Contexts of Ageing

Introduction to Healthy Ageing

Healthy Ageing is about how to create an environment that would allow creating opportunities that can allow the people to live their valuable life throughout their lives (Wanchai, 2019). Each of the individuals has a different experience during the healthy ageing processes. The healthy ageing process is all about to be free from any disease or disability and at the age specific to attain one or more health conditions to enjoy wellbeing (Yon, 2019). The role of the nurses is to engage, create awareness, and promote healthy ageing among elderly people. World Health Organisation (2015) asserts, that healthy ageing is a process, that allows healthy elderly people to transit during the healthy older process and progressing into the older ages (World Health Organization, 2015). WHO describes the key characteristics of the process to associate with the wellbeing associated with the order process and the nurse's role to encourage a healthy ageing process (Tseng, 2019).

Evaluation of Healthy Ageing

While promoting healthy ageing, the role of the RN is to encourage active ageing into healthy ageing. When an older person is socially connected there would be a higher likeliness (of 28%) that have experience the successful ageing (Coquelet, 2017). The nurses to encourage healthy ageing can be done through the social engagement activities. The other way is to adopt a healthy lifestyle, not to indulge in the smoking/alcohol, to remain socially connected with the family and community. In order to promote and empower older people in having choices, considering the benefits of social support opportunities/services is also one of the crucial roles of the nurses (Holland, 2019). The role of the nurses is to promote consumer-driven care, have a personal choice to note the services, and to hold the providers (Campisi, 2019). The ACQS framework is focused on the consumer-driven choice and it is important to have the key focus over the WHO ways to adapt and have modified lifestyles, understand how the elder people would be able to make a healthy active life with the exercises, having fair flexibility, subsequently to increase the mobility and also to consequently to push for the better diets and attain the improved quality of life (Hunter, 2016). The nurses' role is also to focus on promoting the healthy ageing, by encouraging to have a nutritious life and to involve in more physical activity (Critselis, 2020).

Australian College of Nursing (ACN), asserts elderly people mobile, have more choices, and explore the necessary services. Healthy aging is the sign to acquire more independence, have better decision-making abilities, and also to include more social connections (Dong, 2017). With the healthy ageing, signs of the mental and the physical deterioration slowers down attaining adequate cognitive abilities and through the functional decline (Holland, 2019).

Promoting Healthy Ageing

The elderly people attaining healthy ageing can have the quality of life, having ability for independent choices while progressing into older age (Bullock, 2017). Within Australia, the roles of the nurses are to encourage healthy ageing as the sign of promoting increased self-esteem, attaining more confidence, better mobility, and having a self-dignity. Nurses on the job aims to focus on the diverse cultural elder people's habits and to understand their preferences to acquire an adequate health promotion and integrating care services (Morowatisharifabad, 2017).

Within the community, the role of the nurses is to attain healthy ageing and based on the needs, understanding the background and through developing the community engagement with better socio-emotional relationships can help to attain the objective (Navarro-Pardo, 2018).

Role of Nurses

Nurses also have the role to abide by the nursing code of conduct, identifying the legal requirements, attaining a better professional behavior, and following the Australian practice settings.

Person-centered practice – The nurses can include patient-specific services and also promoting good habits, such as healthy lifestyles, good dietary patterns, and also to promote people's wellbeing (Moussa, 2019). Through healthy ageing, the nurse's role is to encourage the person partnership which can include the decision-making process and include delivery care (Bullock, 2019). The nurses can encourage wellbeing by making them more socially connected with their family, friends, and close ones.

Diverse and Cultural practices-: The role of the nurses is to focus on the diverse and cultural practices of the person, such as restricting out certain eating habits, having an active involvement in some community programs, etc, Through strengthening the nurse-patient bonds, is a way to promote respectful relationships while providing adequate services to patient (Ngan, 2017). The nurses also encourage culturally safe practices and by abiding by the principles autonomy (to respect patient decision-making ability), non-maleficence (causing no harm), beneficence (to seek benefits respectfully), and to hold a fair justice (Jarvis, 2016). The nurses while practicing has to be respectful, understand the cultural values, and maintain privacy and confidentiality element. The role of the nurses is also to encourage the health and wellbeing of elderly people by giving them a positive environment and educating them about healthy lifestyles (Oetzel, et al, 2019).

Biopsychosocial, Spiritual and Cultural Factors

The role of the nurses is to promote better communication through interpersonal skills, and documentation skills to encourage adequate support, and to receive information. The skills, expertise, and knowledge should be attained in the reflective practices during the transitions in care and having a better ageing process (Puts, 2019).

BioPsychosocial

Biopsychosocial, are the influential factors to achieve the elderly life, leisure activities, and encourage the promotion of health status, ego integrity that can help to attain the quality of life and promoting self-esteem. Biopsychosocial factors while attaining the healthy ageing process to engage in the fun learning-based activities, and to promote into engaging community (Tseng, 2019).

Spiritual

Healthy ageing is through promoting spiritual-based learning that can be achieved through the physical, psychological, and spiritual well-being, to attain healthy ageing. Nurses also have to check for the ageing signs, by encouraging meditation, increasing awareness, and promoting more activities like yoga and better exercises (Yon, 2019).

Socio-Cultural

The activities involved are the quality health status, respecting the elderly people to maintain ego-eccentric that can achieve the self-achievement (Moussa, 2019). Erikson's psychosocial theory asserts that when nurses are promoting healthy ageing it is important to think about the healthy lifestyles, about the social-cultural factors, and should focus on psychosocial factors such as age-specific exercises, gender-specific lifestyles and even focusing on the demographic factors.

Evidence-based nursing practices promotes the healthy ageing by focusing on the quality of life, attaining a better lifestyle, and providing evidence in support to develop more community engagement programs, The nurses can also encourage better interpersonal styles and to achieve health-related outcomes (Jarvis, 2016). The role of nurses is to focus on providing elderly people with interdisciplinary health care teams and provide swift health care assessments and measure them with the outcomes. Healthy ageing by focusing on the biophysical, social-cultural activities and the spiritual-based set up can include meditations, yoga exercises, age-specific exercises (to promote mobility), and including the nutritious diets, quality lifestyles to attain flexible lifestyles (Johnson, 2017).

Conclusion on Healthy Ageing

To conclude, healthy ageing is the sign to attain a better lifestyle by encouraging the elderly to have sound sleep, exercises, discourage alcohol/smoking or bad habits lower stress, and handle the daily routines with utmost independent decisions and influences. Within Australia, healthy ageing at the specific age understanding the behavioral and biomedical risk factors and to preserve the social and mental wellbeing. The nurses have to promote healthy ageing by understanding signs and information.

References for Healthy Ageing

Bernoth, M. & Winker, D. (2017). Healthy ageing and aged care. South Melbourne, Victoria : Oxford University Press

Brown, D., Edwards, H., Seaton, L., & Buckley, T. (2020). Lewis’s medical-surgical nursing. Assessment and management of clinical problems (5th ed.). Chatswood, N.S.W.: Mosby/Elsevier Australia.

Bullock, S., & Hales, M. (2019). Principles of pathophysiology (2nd ed.). Frenchs Forest, N.S.W.: Pearson.

Bullock, S., & Manias, E. (2017). Fundamentals of pharmacology (8th ed.). Frenchs Forest, N.S.W.: Pearson.

Campisi, J., Kapahi, P., Lithgow, G. J., Melov, S., Newman, J. C., & Verdin, E. (2019). From discoveries in ageing research to therapeutics for healthy ageing. Nature571(7764), 183-192.

Coquelet, N., Mary, A., Peigneux, P., Goldman, S., Wens, V., & De Tiège, X. (2017). The electrophysiological connectome is maintained in healthy elders: a power envelope correlation MEG study. Scientific Reports7(1), 1-10.

Critselis, E., & Panagiotakos, D. (2020). Adherence to the Mediterranean diet and healthy ageing: Current evidence, biological pathways, and future directions. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition60(13), 2148-2157.

Dong, W., Wan, J., Xu, Y., Chen, C., Bai, G., Fang, L., ... & Wang, Y. (2017). Determinants of self-rated health among shanghai elders: a cross-sectional study. BMC Public Health17(1), 807.

Holland, K., Jenkins, J., Solomon, J., & Whittam, S. (2019). Applying the Roper-Logan-Tierney Model in practice (3rd ed). London: Churchill Livingston.

Hunter, S., & Miller. C. A. (2016). Miller’s nursing for wellness in older adults (2nd ed.). Sydney, N.S.W: Wolters Kluwer/Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins.

Jarvis, C. (2016). Jarvis’s physical examination and health assessment (2nd Australian and New Zealand ed.). Chatswood, N.S.W: Elsevier Australia.

Johnson, A., & Chang, A. (2017). Caring for older people in Australia: Principles for nursing practice. Brisbane, QLD: Wiley.

Levett-Jones, T. (2018) Clinical reasoning: Learning to think like a nurse (2nd ed.). Frenchs Forest, NSW: Pearson.

Morowatisharifabad, M. A., Rezaeipandari, H., Dehghani, A., & Zeinali, A. (2016). Domestic elder abuse in Yazd, Iran: a cross-sectional study. Health Promotion Perspectives6(2), 104.

Moussa, M. M. (2019). The relationship between elder care-giving and labour force participation in the context of policies addressing population ageing: A review of empirical studies published between 2006 and 2016. Ageing and Society39(6), 1281-1310.

Navarro-Pardo, E., González-Pozo, L., Villacampa-Fernández, P., & Conejero, J. A. (2018). Benefits of a dance group intervention on institutionalized elder people: a Bayesian network approach. Applied Mathematics and Nonlinear Sciences3(2), 503-512.

Ngan, R. M. H. (2017). Global ageing, social development, and the well-being of the World’s elders. In Future Directions in Social Development (pp. 165-186). Palgrave Macmillan, New York.

Oetzel, J. G., Hokowhitu, B., Simpson, M., Reddy, R., Cameron, M. P., Meha, P., ... & Shelford, P. (2019). Correlates of health-related quality of life for Māori elders involved in a peer education intervention. Journal of Health Communication24(5), 559-569.

Puts, M. T., Hsu, T., Mariano, C., Monette, J., Brennenstuhl, S., Pitters, E., ... & Amir, E. (2019). Clinical and Cost-effectiveness of a Comprehensive geriatric assessment and management for Canadian elders with Cancer—the 5C study: a study protocol for a randomised controlled phase III trial. BMJ Open9(5), e024485.

Tseng, S. H., Liu, L. K., Peng, L. N., Wang, P. N., Loh, C. H., & Chen, L. K. (2019). Development and Validation of a Tool to Screen for Cognitive Frailty Among Community-Dwelling Elders. The Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging23(9), 904-909.

Yon, Y., Ramiro-Gonzalez, M., Mikton, C. R., Huber, M., & Sethi, D. (2019). The prevalence of elder abuse in institutional settings: a systematic review and meta-analysis. European Journal of Public Health29(1), 58-67.

Wanchai, A., & Phrompayak, D. (2019). Social participation types and benefits on health outcomes for elder people: A systematic review. Ageing International44(3), 223-233.

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