• Internal Code :
  • Subject Code : NSB102
  • University : Queensland University of Technology
  • Subject Name : Nursing

Analysis of The Australian Health Care System

Table of Contents

TASK 1

TASK 2.1

Question 1

Question 2

Question 3

Question 4

Question 5

Question 6

Question 7

Question 8

TASK 2.2

Reference list

TASK 1

A person suffering from type 1 insulin-based diabetes has an immune system that destroys all the cells that make insulin present within the pancreas. These beta cells are mostly affected in the younger generation so it is also known as juvenile diabetes (Mannering, Pathiraja & Kay, 2016). The symptoms associated with it includes increased hunger and extreme thirst, fatigue, weight loss, dry mouth, upset stomach, blurry vision, skin infections and more. It leads to prevention of glucose movement leading to rise in blood sugar levels, dehydration, and diabetic ketoacidosis. Possible treatment that is effective involves checking blood sugar levels, adjusting the food, insulin and activities, and insulin shot intake such as short or long-acting (Battelino et al., 2017).

Almost 0.6% of the Australian population or 145, 000 people are affected by it as of 2017-2018. It is a lifelong autoimmune disease that children and early adolescents. The reasons of the early onset have been identified to be environmental and genetic. Almost 6,500 children between the age of 0 and 14 in 2017 had type 1 diabetes equally in females and males according to the National (insulin-treated) Diabetes Register (NDR). It is slightly higher in Outer and Inner regional areas but mostly equal across major cities and socioeconomic groups too. The rate of incidence for 0-14 year olds is 4 times higher than the 25 and over as well as 1.5 times higher than 15-25 year olds (Fullerton et al., 2016).

However, the Torres Strait Islander and Aboriginals are 1.5 times more at risk of it that the non-indigenous Australians with the females slightly at higher risk. Their hospitalisation rate is high too. This might be due to the remoteness of the localities along with the cultural dissimilarities leading to racism and exclusion from improved socio-economic conditions of the indigenous tribes.

TASK 2.1

Question 1

Diseases are occurred from internal and external sources and these can be treated by the various methods. Treatment ensures recovery of people diagnosed with diseases. Diseases are unavoidable facts of a human life but there were many strategies that are available to help in the prevention of such diseases once it has been developed. Several simple steps have been implemented for the prevention of such infectious diseases and all these are done to prevent it from spreading all around the society (Moore & Goodman, 2018). However, cost of prevention might exceed treatment costs and screening of healthy individuals outweighs cost of treating diseased people.

Question 2

The model of neural networks is created by Neuro Solutions software with some variable predictive windows. These networks were used on the patient dataset and evaluated accordingly excluding the formulation of a neural network. The performance measures include the overall calculation of extremes using the model of neural network (Ali et al., 2018). Although this system provides perception in biological aspects, still there are few complexities found in the model as per assumptions.

Question 3

All the types of diseases can affect both mind and body. Mind has a great capacity to influence the body and its responses to the illness physiologically. The interventions of mind-body have taken up as an adjunct care in all body disorder cases. People believed that mental, social, spiritual and emotional factors have a direct influence on health. It is accepted that a mind can influence the body and advocates the practices of alternative healing which maintains the power of the relationship (Ouologueme & Coulibaly, 2019). This approach has calming and relaxation techniques which helps the patient to deal with the disease in an innovative way.

Question 4

The body of an individual is equivalent to a machine as it performs various types of activities; hence, exercise is a very vital part for staying active and fit throughout the life. It helps people to control their diabetes and avoid long-term complications (Poku, Caress & Kirk, 2020). Exercises are beneficial for all the patients as it increases the metabolism and immunity of the body.

Question 5

The reductionist approach is a system perspective of any clinical significance in practical life. Reductionism is a guiding principle which is tremendously useful and helpful to all those people suffering from these diseases. In terms of clinical medicine, chronic disease like asthma and coronary artery disorder are some of the examples where this method can be applied very immediately (Gazit, 2018). The reductionism is helpful when there is failure in system approach and when several components influence the behaviour of the system. For this reason, reductionism is effective for simple and acute diseases, whereas, the system approach is mostly applicable to complex and chronic diseases.

Question 6

The success of the analysis of the diagnosis of the diseases is being observed through the doctrine of specific aetiology. Instead of perceiving the importance of the doctrine the analysis does not comprehend the true fact about the specificity involved in the aetiology level of the diagnosis (Mannering, Pathiraja & Kay, 2016). This is the second type of the model that has overlooked in the literary extend and this analysis classifies the various types of specificity and clarifies the concept of aetiology and continues the figuring of the medicines around the society.

Question 7

This disease is observed in most of the people nowadays, but the diagnostics tests and results which differ from person to person which is based on individualistic reports. Improper spreading of the hormonal enzymes of distribution of the blood cells cause diseases in the body (Woodford, 2018).

Question 8

People having a narrow perception consider health as an absence of disease. In other words, a person is healthy if the body parts like cells, organ systems and tissues function well and no apparent dysfunction is observed in the body (Dafny et al., 2017). Physicians often concentrate on clinical interventions and treatments instead of educational interventions for a change in the behavioral aspects. This following diagnosis has been observed in the patients suffering the insulin based diabetes primarily for the first stage.

TASK 2.2

The effect of poverty as a social determinant on the people suffering complications has been analysed for low earning groups and high earning groups. The variables of risk factors like dyslipidaemia, hypertension, alcohol, and smoking have the changes to occur health problems. The poor people of urban areas in the developing world have a very lower chance of treatment of diabetes as compared to the developed societies in the urban society (Pullar et al., 2018).

However, the chances of complications in the disorder of the body organs is high as these people from the urban societies have financial problems to do such expensive treatments and due to lack of treatment they fail to get over with the disorder. In these urban areas there is no advanced treatment for the disorder and as a result they fail to get proper treatment and medications. Although these differentiations are happened to be multifactorial with some societal components like family structure, family experiences and status involved. It is clear that self-ethnicity is very much important to have the potential to manage the families coping up with the diabetes disorder.

The people with low family income failed to pay for proper medicines and food which affect the patient in coping up with the disorder. The patients with expanded provisions of health care failed to control the disease among the group of low income families. This might be caused from social reasons like difficulty in paying for medicines, food, utilities and housing. This financial crisis causes a lot of problems as they cannot afford the treatment, food and medicines for the patient and as a result it causes more problems like heart problems; lose eyesight and weakness in the system of the body (Pullar et al., 2018).

Reference list

Ali, J. B., Hamdi, T., Fnaiech, N., Di Costanzo, V., Fnaiech, F., & Ginoux, J. M. (2018). Continuous blood glucose level prediction of Type 1 Diabetes based on Artificial Neural Network. Biocybernetics and Biomedical Engineering, 38(4), 828-840.

Battelino, T., Nimri, R., Dovc, K., Phillip, M., & Bratina, N. (2017). Prevention of hypoglycemia with predictive low glucose insulin suspension in children with type 1 diabetes: a randomized controlled trial. Diabetes care, 40(6), 764-770.

Dafny, L. S., Hendel, I., Marone, V., & Ody, C. (2017). Narrow networks on the health insurance marketplaces: prevalence, pricing, and the cost of network breadth. Health Affairs, 36(9), 1606-1614.

Fullerton, B., Siebenhofer, A., Jeitler, K., Horvath, K., Semlitsch, T., Berghold, A., ... & Gerlach, F. M. (2016). Short‐acting insulin analogues versus regular human insulin for adults with type 1 diabetes mellitus. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, (6).

Gazit, E. (2018). Reductionist approach in peptide-based nanotechnology. Annual review of biochemistry, 87, 533-553.

Mannering, S. I., Pathiraja, V., & Kay, T. W. H. (2016). The case for an autoimmune aetiology of type 1 diabetes. Clinical & Experimental Immunology, 183(1), 8-15.

Moore, M. A., & Goodman, R. A. (2018). Physician Training in Cancer Prevention and Control: A Population Health Imperative. American journal of preventive medicine, 54(3), 444-448.

Ouologueme, B., & Coulibaly, Y. (2019). Eminence of the Mind over the Body. Open Journal of Philosophy, 9(03), 281.

Poku, B. A., Caress, A. L., & Kirk, S. (2020). “Body as a Machine”: How Adolescents With Sickle Cell Disease Construct Their Fatigue Experiences. Qualitative Health Research, 1049732320916464.

Pullar, J., Allen, L., Townsend, N., Williams, J., Foster, C., Roberts, N., ... & Wickramasinghe, K. (2018). The impact of poverty reduction and development interventions on non-communicable diseases and their behavioural risk factors in low and lower-middle income countries: a systematic review. PLoS One, 13(2).

Ross, L. N. (2018). The doctrine of specific etiology. Biology & Philosophy, 33(5-6), 37.

Woodford, M. (2018). Individualistic Welfare Analysis in the Age of Behavioral Science. Capitalism and Society, 13(1).

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