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Inquiry into Clinical Practice 

Introduction to Family Presence During Resuscitation

The quantitative research approaches are frequently used in health care. According to Queirós et al. (2017), these approaches use objective measurements with computational modeling, mathematics, and statistical methods to enable an empirical and systematic investigation. Qualitative research has methods like documents, recording, observations, interviews, and surveys. According to Hadi&Closs (2016), qualitative research in healthcare occurs when the researches ask the patients questions like why, why, and questions about their experiences and feelings. This essay will discuss the contribution of qualitative and quantitative researches in healthcare and critical analysis of the contribution of both the research approaches for the topic – Family presence should be supported during resuscitation.

The Purpose and Conduct of Quantitative Research in Health Care

Quantitative research in health care is used to examine patterns and trends in healthcare that help in monitoring and planning. The benefits of this research approach are – they help in producing reliable and factual outcome data, helps in getting objective results and reductionism with large statistical samples that generate reliable and unbiased results (Chafe, 2017). According to Almalki (2016), as the quantitative researchers tend to use similar trials, experiments, and statistical methods, performed in different places, times, and different institutions they can be aggregated together in a large meta-analysis. Thereby, enabling evidence-based health research built with previous studies showing the effectiveness of treatments. According to Queirós et al. (2017), the limitations are –lack of resources for data collection if much articles are not published regarding any of the aspects in healthcare, some participants might not be able to read or understand the questions. It cannot control the environment where the patients provide the information for data collection, thereby creating the chances that important topics might get overlooked. In healthcare, the use of quantitative methods helps in considering the opinions and the views of the patients as well, as these two factors are very important in ensuring quality care. However, this approach aims to observe the phenomena or occurrences that affect individuals.

The Purpose and Conduct of Qualitative Research in Health Care

The qualitative research approach provides useful and deeper insights about the illness, various aspects of care delivery, health, and dynamics of the multidisciplinary teams. It is used to identify barriers and obstacles to the practice change (Chafe, 2017). This is achieved by exploring the reasons for the particular behaviors of the patients. Moreover, it is subjective that considers those things that cannot be expressed as numbers. It calculates the effects, feeling, or reason for a particular thing in healthcare in the original environment of the patient. According to van Wijngaarden et al. (2017), this research aims at understanding the nature and behavior of humans/patients. The benefits include – explore how people interpret diseases and health and study political, economic, cultural, and social factors that influence disease or health. It also focuses on the hidden aspects of healthcare. The limitations include – its deductive method might result in unfair outcomes, getting access to the patients can be difficult in some cases, and the presence of the researcher during data collection can affect the participant’s responses. According to Hadi&Closs(2016), in the health care field, qualitative research is criticized for lacking reproducibility and generalisability and for being subject to researcher bias. To study the issues related to doctor-patient interaction, the researchers use qualitative methods.

The Family Presence During Resuscitation – Qualitative and Quantitative Research

According to Twibell et al. (2018), a telephonic interview was performed with families of resuscitation patients before and after resuscitation to get insights about their feelings during the entire experience. The found about the feelings and perceptions of the families about the communication with the resuscitation team and the reality/fear of death they experienced for their member who was admitted. However, there were 2 limitations noticed that country-specific medical systems were not taken into account and it should be on a generalized population nit on the pediatric population only. It used a triangulation analysis that resulted in increasing the credibility of the study results. This qualitative approach helped to get a deeper insight into the feelings and emotions of the participants.

According to De Stefano et al. (2016), randomized control trials were conducted and data were collected from various databases to conduct a quantitative study. This approach was used to explore the attitude of public and emergency staff about the family presence during resuscitation. However, few articles included in the study used qualitative methods like interviews and surveys. So, both the methods were used collectively to know about the opinions and attitudes of the public, emergency staff, and others in supporting the presence of family members during resuscitation. The limitation was only at – only those who were experiencing the resuscitation inside the hospital were included and no one from outside that experience was included. As both the approaches were used together to explore the knowledge, so better and improved insight are calculated or measured. If both qualitative and quantitative methods are used in nursing then it will result in ethnographic, quasi-experimental, grounded, co-relational, descriptive, and phenomenological outcomes from the study (Toronto &LaRocco, 2019).

A Position in Context to The Family Presence During Resuscitation

It is found through the qualitative and quantitative studies that presence of family members during resuscitation leads to many factors like – providing moral support, emotional presence for being there with the patient during critical times, active involvement in the process, to evaluate or see the efforts of a resuscitation team, and many others. Considering all these factors it is summarized that the presence of family members should be supported during the process as it also ensures family involvement in patient care.

The Learning from The Evidence and Future Nursing Practice

The presence of family members should be supported during the resuscitation process in healthcare. This ensures emotional support for the family that they are present for their hospitalized member and are involved actively with him/her in all his treatments and medical processes. The research approaches also measured that emotional reasons were more common. The presence of family members also ensures effective communication among the family members, the patient and the professionals this provides medical information to the family and they can express their opinions about the medical team’s interventions (Porter, 2019). This presence not only reduces the chances of traumatic grieving but also ensures the awareness about the medical procedures and treatment processes among the family members. If the family is present during the resuscitation then they will get ensured that the healthcare team put all of their best efforts to bring the patient back to life. It will prove the family members that the patient was provided with complete and continued care. Moreover, family presence during resuscitation reduces family fear and anxiety. It also becomes easy to manage the members of the patient who are present in the room with the patient.

The Future Nursing Practice

In future nursing practice, it will be ensured that the family members are asked for their willingness to be present during the resuscitation of their hospitalized patient. If they show willingness then their presence should be supported and ensured. According to Hassankhani et al. (2107), the training and education of the nursing professionals play an important role in building confidence and effective communication to effectively support and implement the family presence during the resuscitation processes. If this issue is supported in future nursing practice then it will reduce the chances of conflicts with the health care teams, increase family satisfaction, built up trust in the resuscitation team, and many other positive outcomes.

Conclusion on Family Presence During Resuscitation

It was found that both qualitative and quantitative research approaches are used in healthcare. If both are implemented together then it results in better and deeper insights about the study and the result outcomes are also reliable. If both qualitative and quantitative methods are used in nursing then it will result in ethnographic, quasi-experimental, grounded, co-relational, descriptive, and phenomenological outcomes from the study. In the case of family presence during resuscitation, it was found that some studies conducted randomized control trials, interviews, or mixed methods were used. It was found that it should be supported to allow family members during resuscitation processes as it has many positive outcomes. The positive outcomes are - reduces the chances of traumatic grieving, effective communication among the family members, the patient, and the professionals, and many others.

References for Family Presence During Resuscitation

Almalki, S. (2016). Integrating quantitative and qualitative data in mixed methods research--challenges and benefits. International Journal of Clinical Pharmacy5(3), 288-296.

Chafe R. (2017). The value of qualitative description in health services and policy research. Healthcare Policy12(3), 12–18.

De Stefano, C., Normand, D., Jabre, P., Azoulay, E., Kentish-Barnes, N., Lapostolle, F., &Vicaut, E. (2016). Family presence during resuscitation: A qualitative analysis from a national multicenter randomized clinical trial. PloS One11(6), e0156100. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0156100

Hadi, M. A., &Closs, S. J. (2016).Ensuring rigour and trustworthiness of qualitative research in clinical pharmacy. International Journal of Clinical Pharmacy38(3), 641-646. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11096-015-0237-6

Hassankhani, H., Zamanzadeh, V., Rahmani, A., Haririan, H., & Porter, J. E. (2017). Family presence during resuscitation: A double‐edged sword. Journal of Nursing Scholarship49(2), 127-134.https://doi.org/10.1111/jnu.12273

Queirós, A., Faria, D., & Almeida, F. (2017).Strengths and limitations of qualitative and quantitative research methods. European Journal of Education Studies.http://dx.doi.org/10.46827/ejes.v0i0.1017

Twibell, R., Siela, D., Riwitis, C., Neal, A., & Waters, N. (2018). A qualitative study of factors in nurses' and physicians' decision‐making related to family presence during resuscitation. Journal of Clinical Nursing27(1-2), e320-e334.https://doi.org/10.1111/jocn.13948

vanWijngaarden, E., Meide, H. V. D., & Dahlberg, K. (2017). Researching health care as a meaningful practice: Toward a nondualistic view on evidence for qualitative research. Qualitative Health Research27(11), 1738-1747. https://doi.org/10.1177%2F1049732317711133

Toronto, C. E., &LaRocco, S. A. (2019). Family perception of and experience with family presence during cardiopulmonary resuscitation: An integrative review. Journal of Clinical Nursing28(1-2), 32-46. https://doi.org/10.1111/jocn.14649

Porter, J. E. (2019). Family presence during resuscitation (FPDR): A qualitative descriptive study exploring the experiences of emergency personnel post resuscitation. Heart & Lung48(4), 268-272.https://doi.org/10.1016/j.hrtlng.2018.09.016

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