Table of Contents
1A. A paranoid is characterized by or resembles paranoia or schizophrenia; he or she is a patient of paranoid psychiatric. The person behaves in a paranoid manner as accusing people of persecution. Mainly characterized by megalomania, suspiciousness, and trends of persecutory. The person always feels exceptionally fearful. It is a medical illness where people are suffering from it. Falsely believes that other people are trying to harm them (Malti, 2020). The feeling is unreasonable; the emotions like people do not like them show that patient is paranoid. The definition of paranoid states that someone who has a mental disorder called paranoia, the person is characterized by feelings of extreme distrust, delusions, being harmed by others, and suspicion. The medical definition states that it relates to skepticism or perception that other people have a motive which is lead by aggression or hostile while having interaction with the patient. In reality, there is no reason to have such suspicions.
1B. The two immediate priorities of nursing care are the safety of Michael and communicating with him with sensitivity and respect. Nursing care must protect patients who always feel paranoid and thinks that other people are going to harm them. The patient Michael ran away in towels, with dirty hands, feet, and hair. He had deep cuts and was looking back; he thought that the nurses are bikes. In such a situation, the safety of Michael is essential. He could have easily met with na accident as he was running and looking back continually to know that someone is following him or not. He should be safe in nursing care in the presence of the staff and members of the nursing care. Patient being paranoid like Michael does not trust people, and what they try to make the patient understand. Nursing care needs to communicate with them with sensitivity and respect, making them feel supported and trust the staff and members. Michael was not aggressive in the case study, he did not try to believe that hospital is a safe place for him to stay, and he did not want to be there (Lewis, Fanaian, Kotze & Grenyer, 2019). The communicating person must clear his or her intentions.
1C. To ensure the safety of patients, the nursing care must focus on quality assurance and quality improvement of the environment where the patient is treated. The practices must include protecting the patient from medical errors, harmful situations, adverse events, insufficient staffing, poor communication, or obsolete knowledge of new technology. There must be a training program where all the staff must learn how to handle these situations; there must be demo classes or virtual classes for taking actions in such a panicking case. Self-harm, suicide, aggression, and violence must be checked in the environment of nursing care and also must be reviewed that patient himself or herself is not doing it. In mental healthcare, it is important to conceptualize the consequences and risks. The nursing care must use the techniques of different soft communication and research about how to make the patient feel good and make them believe the reality (Holmes et al., 2020). Patient with mental illness is challenging to be communicated with. Regular training of techniques and practice can improve it. Communication must involve the goal of the message and must be apparent to the patient; there must be no conversation that can provoke the patient or make him or her feel distressed and unsafe.
1C. Michael must be admitted to the hospital after the fulfillment of the mental status examination to avoid any legal issues and abide by the legal considerations. The MSE is a structured way to observe and describe the patient's present state of mind, under the domains of attitude, mood, judgment, insight, appearance, through the process, speech, cognition, perception, content if thought, and affect. The insight and judgment is the component of the mental status examination. Insight is a component which that shows how and how much the patient understands that he or she has a mental illness, and their expensive of it is abnormal in many ways. Legally it is used in trials for final finding, ruling, or statement (Davis, Juratowitch, Lamont & Brunero, 2020). The spelling note is provided for further explanation. Weighing evidence is considered called adjudication. While admitting the patient, questions are asked to the patient like what do you think is the root cause of the problem, do you think at parent you are having the trouble, or do you feel that you need to have help for solving the problem. The legal considerations of taking the consent or not doing something against the will of patients are fullifield by the mental status examination and from the use of the insight component.
2A. The person who has Post-traumatic stress disorder has the illness due to shocking, scary, or dangerous events experienced by them in the past. Naturally is alright to feel fearful in such situations and after these tragic situations. Such fear changes the response of a person and body to fight from such experience; usually, people recover from the initial symptoms, but those who experienced trouble for a long time have the PSTD (Corcoran & Oatley, 2019). The person feels low, stressed, and often frightened though there is no reason to feel such emotions. The symptoms sometimes become chronic, and not all people go through a dangerous event. Sometimes PSTD happens due to death or loss of loved ones. The symptoms can begin after three months or after three years. The symptoms intervene in a person's work life, personal life, and relationship daily. The symptoms can increase the risk of suicide attempt by the person with time.
2B. The two strategies that must be used by nursing care staff to treat Allah's acute suicide risk are developing communicative therapeutic relationships with the patients and understanding the state of mind of patients by using the applicable risk assessment techniques. The nursing care must not in any way make the patient feel judged, neglected, or cast out as these are the last thing a PSTD suffering patient want to be distressed about (Bucci, Schwannauer & Berry, 2019). The patient should be provided with an emotionally safe, emotionally supportive environment, and effective interventions can improve the trust relationship between Aliah and psychiatric nurses. This leads to evidence-based discussion for knowing their motivation for suicide, which increases the risk. The psychological pain of patients can also be treated in the process. Techniques like performing the mental status examination, States what is the mental state of the patient by using objective observation and response of the patient, research for past events leading to physical or psychological drama in the patient, and considering every risk factors, triggers, and protective factors in the patient. The characteristics and causes of stimuli of distress and fear are identified, and identify that the outcomes are affected by the patient's exaggeration or minimization symptoms.
2B. The interventions in nursing care for improving the person-centered care are based on two approaches, one for chronic symptoms and one with mild symptoms. The multidisciplinary intervention includes merging craniofacial therapy, acupuncture/acupressure, and other bodywork with psychotherapeutic interventions. It is to treat the trauma both physically and psychologically. This includes treating the physical body to the psychotherapeutic practices that the patient's care (Bennett et all., 2019). The nursing care finds it's useful for patients who have post-traumatic stress disorder. The second method is educating the patient and the family about natural ways of reducing stress, and the psychological fear also proves to be valuable in providing person-centered care. The interventions are essential as the patient who need person-centered care must be treated with a practice that proves to be effective an brings outcome. The treatment must be healing for both body and mind. The risk of acute suicide must be treated with the use of interventions for person-centered care. The practices used by staff must be done with guidance and safety for no risk and legal issues or harmful effects. The multidisciplinary approach reduces the PSTD symptoms in the patient and also requires taking psychiatric medication for reducing the stress and fears.
3a The harm minimization approach can be described as approaching the public health-related things in such a way that it reduces the negative effects that can be harmful. As alcohol and drugs are a very important part of human health medicines it becomes important to take care of these things so that there seen no or less negative effects on health. The therapeutic approach helps the researchers to deal with information and the solutions to it. As it is important to understand that the drug or alcohol instead of having neutral effects is affected negatively because a good drug is what cures the problem as well as does have neutral effects on other things, or it should not cause any adverse or harmful effect. This helps in focusing more on the research so that it gives various insights and without any proper information it is not used as well. This is what I understood about the harm minimization approach.
3b The harm minimization approach relates to people-centered care as this focuses on reducing the harmful effects of the drugs and alcohol on the people and this suggests to research very deeply about the components of everything because if anything gets missed out it can affect the health negatively. This is linked to the effects of it on the behavior as well. The different sources give information about this harm minimization approach, how it should be implemented, and most importantly the effects of it. The main goal of it is the care of the people from the adverse or negative of these drugs and alcohol. This becomes the biggest challenge for the test of various parameters that can make any changes to it and makes useless. The therapeutic approach has been effective in reducing such harmful cause to happen or to hives the solutions for them that makes it more useful to be used in working with drugs and alcohol.
Bennett, S. D., Cuijpers, P., Ebert, D. D., McKenzie Smith, M., Coughtrey, A. E., Heyman, I., ... & Shafran, R. (2019). Practitioner Review: Unguided and guided self‐help interventions for common mental health disorders in children and adolescents: a systematic review and meta‐analysis. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 60(8), 828-847.
Bucci, S., Schwannauer, M., & Berry, N. (2019). The digital revolution and its impact on mental health care. Psychology and Psychotherapy: Theory, Research and Practice, 92(2), 277-297.
Corcoran, R., & Oatley, K. (2019). Reading and Psychology I. Reading Minds: Fiction and Its Relation to the Mental Worlds of Self and Others. In Reading and Mental Health (pp. 331-343). Palgrave Macmillan, Cham.
Davis, M., Juratowitch, R., Lamont, S., & Brunero, S. (2020). Mind the gaps: identifying opportunities in mental health assessment and mental health certificate completion in rural and remote NSW, Australia. Australasian emergency care, 23(3), 137-141.
Holmes, E. A., O'Connor, R. C., Perry, V. H., Tracey, I., Wessely, S., Arseneault, L., ... & Ford, T. (2020). Multidisciplinary research priorities for the COVID-19 pandemic: a call for action for mental health science. The Lancet Psychiatry.
Lewis, K. L., Fanaian, M., Kotze, B., & Grenyer, B. F. (2019). Mental health presentations to acute psychiatric services: 3-year study of prevalence and readmission risk for personality disorders compared with psychotic, affective, substance or other disorders. BJPsych open, 5(1).
Malti, T. (2020). Children and Violence: Nurturing Social‐Emotional Development to Promote Mental Health. Social Policy Report, 33(2), 1-27.
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