Pharmacology and Pathophysiology in Health

Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics are the processes by which a drug is known to interact within the body and get the required effect. The core of pharmacokinetics is the interaction of the drug in the body in respect to the absorption, distribution, metabolism and removal of the drug from the system. On the other hand, the core of pharmacodynamics is the one which is related to the relation between the receptor and the drug which is responsible for the mechanism of action and therapeutic effect. The two main aspects of pharmacodynamics are the mechanism of action and dose-response relation. Mechanism of action of a drug is related to the biochemical interaction between the molecules of drug and its receptor which is present on the target organ in such a way that the drug can have a pharmacological effect. The molecules of drug and the receptors are the ones which are chemical structures and have chemical affinities towards the drug and as a result, specific action occurs which are known as the action of the drug. The interactions at the chemical and molecular level alter the structure and in turn function at the molecular level so that the desired outcome can be obtained. The other aspect is the dose-response relation between the drug and the level of response that might be seen as a result of administration of the drug. This is an important aspect of pharmacodynamics because it is required for the formation of safety dose, the hazardous dose for the beneficial effect and adverse effects.

A proto-oncogene is a normal gene which due to any reason can get mutated and become a cancer-causing gene that is an oncogene. These cells have different functions within cells it can either lead to cell proliferation or cell death. An oncogene is a gene that has the potential to cause cancer but does not actually cause cancer until and unless they undergo change or mutation. The cells undergo programmed cell death which is altered in case of mutated oncogene and the cells do not die and there is excessive proliferation of genes. Tumour suppressor genes are the one which works against the tumour causing genes and slows the division and growth of cells. In case this gene is mutated the suppression does not occur and there are development and growth of cancer. Treatment of cancer can be either pharmacological that is chemotherapy or radiation or a combination. One of the main classes of the drug is Alkylsulfonates and the drug under the category is Busulfan. It is an alkylating agent which has two labile methanesulfonate groups attached to the opposite ends of the alkyl chain. When it gets hydrolyzed labile methanesulfonate groups are released and there is the formation of carbonium ions. These inhibit the RNA transcription in the cells and cause irreparable damage to cells’ DNA and apoptosis occur. Though it is a cancer-specific drug it also affects normal cells and more importantly, it causes suppression of bone marrow resultant in the adverse effects of the drug use.

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