• Internal Code :
  • Subject Code : NSG2104
  • University : Holmesglen institute
  • Subject Name : Nursing

Table of Contents







The medication-related errors (a subset of clinical blunder) were a critical reason for bleakness and mortality; one out of each 131 outpatient passing, and one out of 854 inpatient passing is represented by them. Medication errors were assessed to represent in excess of 7,000 passing yearly. Expanding on this work and past IOM reports, the IOM set forth a report in 2007 on medication wellbeing, Preventing Medication Errors. This report significantly reduces medication errors, improves patient communication, constantly monitors for errors, provides clinician decision support and information tools, improves medication labelling and information, and emphasizes the importance of standardization (Roughead, Semple & Rosenfeld, 2013).

Studies show that some types of errors identified by others, such as delayed replication, abstraction and intrusion / extra passage, have a higher likelihood of reporting error types than those related to nursing practice. The classification method used will determine how this step will be performed so it can be targeted and therefore disciplined. For example, for error types, the study used an institution-specific and country-wide database to know the rates of medication errors, but errors were not yet determined during medication processing, delivery, or administration.

Whether management errors related to nurses' management were clearly resolved study. The study analysed medication-related mortality rates, most of the deaths related to overdoses, once again discovered that it was not detectable - it is seen that the stage is still the wrong dose. Medication exclusion, misdiagnosed medication, and misdiagnosis are the most common sort of medication errors. Nevertheless, the effects of comparison along with the exercise are because of the deficiency of adjustment between the different sorts of classes that are applied in the study.

The improved dependence on the medication therapy being the crucial involvement for maximum number of diseases has recognized its benefits as well as the potential harm to patients receiving medication therapy. The aids and profits are operative management of the disease / sickness, slow progress of the illness as well as improvement of the patient from the medication error. In addition to the unintended consequences of medication damage, it can lead to medication defects such as wrong dose, wrong medication along with wrong time, etc.

Due to insufficient research on the safety of the nurses along with the quality of the patient, it is often challenging for nurses with additional workloads, lack of staffing, exhaustion, invalid provider handwriting, system errors and medication labelling. The purpose of this study is to review studies on nursing safety care. Medication There is an appropriate and consistent knowledge base for reporting medication errors during the procedure of medication, indicating that the base of knowledge is too weak to signal intervention (Phillips et al., 2014).



Inappropriate usage of medication or improper application of medication can be led by the preventable event where a medication is under the control of a healthcare expert, patient or consumer. These national events can be associated with the occupational habits, products of healthcare, processes, Product labelling, naming, packaging along with procedural rules, Order communication.

Some of the causes related with medication errors are:

  • IC separation medication of similar name or similar package

  • Medications aren’t usually applied or suggested

  • Medications that are used generally are allergic for a number of patients (nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medications, antibiotics, opiates, etc.)

  • Testing is needed for determineing appropriate (eg, non-toxic) treatment levels for medications (for example, warfarin, lithium, digoxin along with theophylline) (Caughey, Ellett & Wong, 2014)

Deficiencies of Medication happen in all context as well as might or might not be opposing medication events (ADEs). Medications by means of multifaceted dose up systems are related to the risk of ADE given in specialized areas (such as diagnostics, intensive care units, intervention areas along with emergency departments). We also know that the death of the medication (most acute ADE) involves central nervous system medications, antitumor, and cardiovascular medications. The most common errors caused by patient mortality include incorrect dose (40.9%), incorrect medication (16%), and incorrect dosing control (9.5%).

Causes of this cause of death include verbal and written misunderstandings, confusion of names (such as names resembling names), labeling of similar or misleading containers, lack of performance or knowledge, incorrect packaging or device design. If a medication defect is associated with a high alert medication, it may be considered a sentinel event (Barton et al., 2012).

Impact and Effect of Medication Errors

If incidence information is missing, incomplete or incomplete, medication deficits are difficult to reduce or eliminate. Wilson et al., (2016) describes the concept that there are 100 errors (mostly undefined) for each medication that causes harm to the patient. Most medication errors are harmful to the patient or cannot be identified by a doctor. Detecting low rates of errors, the effectiveness of strategies to prevent medication error assessment depends on the detection method used for the medication error rate. For example, studies of patients have shown that patients often experience errors as frequently as daily. The Paediatric Intensive Care Unit (ICU) survey found that the medication error rate increased from 5.723 per 100 orders to 14.6 per 100 sequences.

The exact number could not be known without the infrastructure to capture and evaluate all medications and near misses. Patient protection companies are beginning to collect errors nationwide, and it is expected that these rates will be higher as physicians identify all medication deficiencies and become more comfortable and efficient. Concerns about the possible prevalence and impact of ADE-2 on 100 inpatients — this is only the beginning for understanding the potential for major medication error rates.

The Process of Defective Processing

The medication process has five steps: (a) order / instruction, (b) transcription and legalization, (c) delivery and distribution, (d) management, and (e) monitoring and reporting. . One of the most important and primary tasks related to medication safety is that patients may have a preventable injury or death because they are associated with the defects caused by ADE when prescribing, administering and administering the medication. Few studies show that a defect in one of the three medications may be due to a lack of knowledge of the medication or the patient.

Instruction Methods / Procedures

In step five, often the patient's order / prescription starts with errors due to the wrong dose or the wrong medication. At this stage, the wrong medications, dosages, etc. of allergies, workloads, knowledge of prescription medications, medications that know the spirit of the prescriber, etc., or a route may be ordered. Therefore, if a nurse or pharmacist asks the president about an order, they can resolve aggressive behavior, which may hinder future questions and clarity.

Transcript, Distribution and Delivering

In some settings medication orders are provided in transcription, delivery and nurse management. In certain situations and settings, both the nurse and the pharmacist are involved in trans medication transcription, validation, delivery and delivery. Nevertheless, these two phases of error (replication and validation, delivery and distribution) have been studied primarily for pharmacists. Moreover, an significant role can be played by the Pharmacists in terms of preventing errors (Roughead, Semple & Rosenfeld, 2016).

Medication Administration

Nurses are primarily involved in administering medications in various settings. Nurses may be involved in both medication delivery and preparation (similar to pharmacists), such as taking medication or drawing measurable amounts for injections. Not only nurses give medicines. Some studies on the administration of medications administered by physicians, certified pharmacists, and patients and families have reported errors associated with nurses' medication management. Nurses can spend up to 40% of their time in medication administration because of many common reasons nurses are involved in medication errors.

A large survey of the United States National Council Nursing Committee evaluated whether nurses had identifiable characteristics among nurses with poor medication management. The most important finding is that "disciplinary age, education readiness and employment decisions for medication management errors are consistent with the entire RN population."

Threats to medication safety include misunderstandings, misleading directions, poor strategies, poor patient information, poor patient knowledge, lack of knowledge of the medication, incomplete history of the medication, and unnecessary safety checks among providers.

Detect and Report on Medication Administration Errors

Strategies related to Error reporting are important for the application of operative approaches of system-level for reducing the errors related to medication along with ADEs. Nevertheless, the effectiveness of a number of strategies of reporting reliance on the response level directly. In addition, for being effective, reporting of medication error must be the portion of the continuous and incessant procedure of quality development (Roughead, Semple & Rosenfeld, 2013).


Methods used for detecting errors are direct observation, pre-identified chart review along with incident reporting. Incident reports that collect data about renowned errors may vary between unit and administrative activity. This shows only a few of the actual medication errors, especially when compared with patient record reviews. Chart reviews have proven to be most effective in sequencing / decision error detection, but direct observation of the dose compared to the dosing suggests that you identify the maximum dose errors. However, some systems cannot detect sequence errors and replication and distribution errors. There were two studies that compared the detection methods.

In one of these studies of medication administration in 36 hospitals and skilled nursinghomes, 2,667 doses had 373 errors. Comparing the three detection methods, a percentage of errors were found in the chart review and the incident report found only 5%. Direct observation was able to detect 80% of true management errors. Other ways are far more than detection. In the second study, the detection method was compared, and the observations found a higher dosing error (1.8% error rate) than the patient's treatment record (25.5% error rate). Therefore, there is no way to do everything. Without an automated trigger system, multiple methods such as incidental reporting, monitoring, patient record review and pharmacists monitoring can be more successful (Roughead & Semple, 2009).

This study found that when nurses voluntarily report medication management errors, they report errors of 10 to 25 percent. As explained in the error reporting section, there have been several studies that have identified nurses as to what constitutes hospital MAE, why such errors have occurred, and what are the barriers to reporting. There are three important barriers to reporting: (a) nursing staff who do not agree with the definition of reportable error, (b) hospital management / administrators and colleagues' fear of response and response, and (c) documentation and reporting error. Time and effort. Together, these studies show that the reported medication errors do not represent the actual occurrence of medication errors.

Based on the nurses' survey of disability reporting, the authors proposed several strategies to enhance MAE reporting. Agreement on defining errors. Errors mitigation assistance and reporting. Institutionalizing the culture of learning and rewarding error reporting (e.g., a culture of safety where education is encouraged and prevented); Capital of the feedback report to determine the cause of the system; And confirm active incentives for MAE reporting.

Medication Safety Standard

The Medication Safety Standard needs health service organization to measure medication management and implement practices and procedures that:

  • Make available for sound administration for the safe and quality utilization of medicines.

  • Confirm that skilled clinicians securely dispense, recommend, and oversee medicines, and review their effect

  • Reduce the rate of medicine-related incident as well as the possible for patient harm from medicines.

  • Notify the patients about their medicines and include them in decision-making.

The Medication Safety Standard ought to be applied related to different NSQHS Standards, together with the Partnering with Consumers Standard and the Clinical Governance Standard. Along with that, synergies with different NSQHS Standards will likewise should be recognized. It will guarantee that medication safety and quality system, as well as procedures and policies for medication management are incorporated, to decrease duplication of exertion. Furthermore, medication management includes dispensing, prescribing, monitoring, and administering medicines.

Medication management is complicated and includes a few unique clinicians. Regularly alluded to as the medication management pathway, it includes various exercises and three framework procedures to deal with the effective and safe utilization of medicines for patients at every scene of care. Moreover, safe practices and procedures are needed for all activities in the pathway of medication management. This activity incorporates supplying, procuring, storing, manufacturing, compounding, prescribing, administering, monitoring, and dispensing the impacts of medicines (Semple & Roughhead, 2009).

The buyer is the focal point of the medication management pathway. Further, health service organization ought to use the standards of banding together with shoppers, health literacy and shared decision-making when reviewing, developing, and executing practices or procedures in the medication management pathway. Besides, the pathway gives a system to:

  • Recognizing when there is potential for risk or error of harm

  • Responding with strategy to decrease the chances for error.

To guarantee the effective and safe utilization of medicines in the health service organizations, the clinicians must recognize open doors for patient harm and execute procedures to avoid medication related error. Steps taken initially in the medication management pathway can forestall hostile event happening later in the pathway (Roughead et al. 2011).


The study describes the issue of medication errors which is most common t these days scenario. Along with that this study offers the review, Medication administration, Medication Safety Standard and the discussion of the issue. In addition, this study also Detect and report on medication administration errors.


Barton, L., Futtermenger, J., Gaddi, Y., Kang, A., Rivers, J., Spriggs, D., ... & Thomas, J. S. (2012). Simple prescribing errors and allergy documentation in medical hospital admissions in Australia and New Zealand. Clinical Medicine, 12(2), 119.

Caughey, G. E., Ellett, L. M. K., & Wong, T. Y. (2014). Development of evidence-based Australian medication-related indicators of potentially preventable hospitalisations: a modified RAND appropriateness method. BMJ open, 4(4), e004625.

Phillips, A. L., Nigro, O., Macolino, K. A., Scarborough, K. C., Doecke, C. J., Angley, M. T., & Shakib, S. (2014). Hospital admissions caused by adverse drug events: an Australian prospective study. Australian Health Review, 38(1), 51-57.

Roughead, E. E., & Semple, S. J. (2009). Medication safety in acute care in Australia: where are we now? Part 2: a review of strategies and activities for improving medication safety 2002-2008. Australia and New Zealand health policy, 6(1).

Roughead, E. E., Semple, S. J., & Rosenfeld, E. (2016). The extent of medication errors and adverse drug reactions throughout the patient journey in acute care in Australia. International journal of evidence-based healthcare, 14(3-4), 113-122.

Roughead, E. E., Vitry, A. I., Caughey, G. E., & Gilbert, A. L. (2011). Multimorbidity, care complexity and prescribing for the elderly. Aging Health, 7(5), 695-705.

Roughead, L., Semple, S., & Rosenfeld, E. (2013). Literature review: medication safety in Australia. Sydney: Australian Commission on Safety and Quality in Health Care.

Semple, S. J., & Roughhead, E. E. (2009). Medication safety in acute care in Australia: where are we now? Part 1: a review of the extent and causes of medication problems 2002–2008. Australia and New Zealand health policy, 6(1).

Wilson, A. J., Palmer, L., Levett-Jones, T., Gilligan, C., & Outram, S. (2016). Interprofessional collaborative practice for medication safety: Nursing, pharmacy, and medical graduates’ experiences and perspectives. Journal of interprofessional care, 30(5), 649-654.

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