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Primary Healthcare Nursing - Part A

A.1. Purpose of the Community Mental Health Nurse: The community mental health nurse professionals practice in association with the inter-disciplinary professional's team to cater specific hold up to clients and families who are perceiving mental problems such as anxiety, addiction to drugs, or alcohol, depression, etc. The purpose of CMHN is to focus on aiding their patients’ content with disparate mental illnesses (Karanikola et al., 2018). The community mental health nurse identifies the mental issues and their purpose is to prevent the people of the community from mental health issues and provide care and treatment to people suffering from psychiatric problems. Their aspiration is chiefly on the preventive aids which involve arrangements of an on-going, all-inclusive system of arrangements that are outlined in order to meet all mental fitness associated requirements in the community.

Responsibilities of the Community Mental Health Nurse: The main aim of the community mental health nurse is to promote health among the people of a community (Felton & Wright, 2017).

  • Community Mental Health Nurse recognizes the requirements and perspectives of people individually, their families, groups, and also, the community.
  • Generates health plans, mainly when the community physician is absent.
  • Advocates plans and programs associated with a mental health problem by disseminating information, education, and contact elements in the community.
  • Organizes and expedites essential training and directions for educating people in the community (Felton & Wright, 2017).
  • Stores information in concern with the health ranks and the existence of the mental health issues in the community.

A.2. The community mental health nurse provides direct care and treatment to the individual, educates, and advocates the individual consumer for improvements in terms of mental health. The role of a community mental health nurse is to provide help, support, and keep the mental health of the individual under control. It involves inter-disciplinary collusion and intensifies the individual's responsibility and self-care. The function of a community mental health nurse is to evaluate the mental health condition of an individual consumer, assesses the mental health risks and issues of the individual to analyze the health-care demand of the individual (Sayers et al., 2016). Also, the community mental health nurse act as a direct care provider, educator and advocate to address and provide appropriate assistance, care, and treatment to the individual. The community mental health nurse as a direct care provider assures health care supply to individuals involving fixed emphasis disparate from elemental nursing to promote health and expand health (Luther et al., 2017). The community mental health nurse as an educator assesses the attitudes, beliefs, practices, knowledge, stage of change, values, and abilities in an individual and helps them by providing education in terms of health as per the level of knowledge (Stanhope & Lancaster, 2019). Also, as an advocate, they address the individual's right in terms of care and embolden the individual to have correct food, medicines, and services at the correct place wherever they are required.

The role of community mental health nurse is to target over the rehabilitation of chronically mentally unfit people in the community, function as a case manager, to give individual consumers back hold for daily living, to give support to the patient’s family (Agyapong, Farren & McAuliffe, 2016). The role of a community mental health nurse in developing policy is a view for the improvement of mental health, and diminishing the risk factors and a load of mental issues in the community associated with it. The development of policies by community mental health nurses establishes a model for action on the basis of ethics, values, objectives, beliefs, and principles (Lewinsky & Simmons, 2018). Community mental health nurses play a pivotal role in the establishment of the community free from domestic violence. Domestic violence not only causes affect to the sufferer but in an indirect way it affects the family and the closed one of the victim leading to psychological as well as emotional trauma. Community mental health nurses interact closely with the sufferers and play a role by helping them in the prevention of domestic violence. The community mental health nurses must contend the management, in which they perform practice, acknowledge the liability and perform collaboratively to form environments that holds-up the people suffering from domestic violence (Shepard et al., 2016). These nurses express their condition to policymakers and can advocate the people as advocator, help, and support to prevent the community from such activities.

Primary Healthcare Nursing - Part B

A.1. The health promotion resources are the abundance of information on a broad range of topics associated with health and wellness. People can achieve educational content from health educators and can discuss with them in concern with their private health issues or questions. Also, performing poster presentations, PowerPoint presentations, and advocate people through fact sheets about the mental issues that they face, can help the mental health consumers to overcome their condition (NAMI, n.d.). The fact sheets consist of clear, short, and to the point information over mental health topics. These can be used by sharing them with people of the community in order to advocate the people, accompanying them for appointments, and approaching and supervising them in health fairs, and programs associated to address people suffering from mental health issues (O’Connor, Cowdell & Watson, 2017). Also, community mental health nurses help the people by providing support in prevention from mental illness but there can be a drawback in providing information from fact sheets. Literacy can be a barrier in providing information from such resources because there can be mental health consumers with some literacy who can face issues in understanding the key points mentioned in the fact sheet (Chen et al., 2018). Short and understandable points mentioned in the fact sheet can address people with some literacy and can be helpful. Handling the mentally ill patients and advocating the terms mentioned in the fact sheet in a program organized on mental health issues can provide concise information to the patients with some literacy that is needed to them.

A.2. A fact sheet is a one-sheet demonstration representing data in a layout form that provides evidence-based information to the intended resource and accentuates the key points briefly. Commonly, it provides the information by utilizing texts, figures, tables, headings, graphical data, and bullet points over a specific printed page. Also, as it contains the list of important facts related to the issue, it supports the reader from the target audience with necessitating information in an open, short, and succinct form. The intended purpose of designing fact sheets is to eliminate bias depend on disability in any event or program getting civil communal assistance (Arnold et al., 2019). The information provided in the fact sheet should be correct and must have a basis, or else it would conquer the intended purpose of designing the fact sheet and may lead to a critical dilemma.

A.3. The importance of the fact sheet is that it helps readers from the target audience with necessitating information in an open, short, and succinct form. A fact sheet can be a paper presentation or digital presentation and is designed to inform people of a community about the campaign, event, activity, or any other issue or topic (CTB, 2020). Fact sheets are easy and an important approach to making information release to the public faster and adequately. As the fact sheets contain data or summary of research, lists, tables, statistical figures, etc. it helps the people of the community by advising 'how to do it by yourself', advises to read and understand the information and advocating the other people of the community by sharing the fact sheets. (CTB, 2020). This is a helpful approach in advocating the people who are suffering from mental illness by providing a fact sheet in order to guide them and provide moral support in order to help them in overcoming mental disorders. People of the community need open, targeted, evidence-based data or facts in concern with the mental issues and treatment to know how to manage and better their health, how to approach health resources, and how to avert from further illnesses (ACSQHC, 2017). To overcome such issues faced by people the fact sheet is designed and the importance of the fact sheet is to make people understand the information provided in that single-sheet of paper. In spite of the troubles in the impending sustainability of consumers in mental health, various opportunities are there that are distinct to the mental issues. It involves the powerful proof base that description-based mediation can better various mental issues (RHIhub, 2020). The evidence that basic resource mediations like communication therapies, clique-based mediations, physical activities, and psychotherapy/psycho-education can help in achieving clinical advantages and decisive communal consequences.

A.4. The benefits of a fact sheet in health promotion are to better the quality of lifestyle of the people in the community who strive, grow, practice and provide information in the form of guidance so they can make their own decisions between the range of healthy, convenient, reachable, and economical choices. The benefits of a fact sheet are that it can provide information to the community and advocate the people to better their lifestyle and overcome the mental issues which they are facing daily and are unable to focus on their daily lifestyle (Innstrand & Christensen, 2018). The advantage of the fact sheet is that it provides an evidence-based approach to help, support, guide, and assist people as people believe more when they find evidence in the resource. People acknowledge the information provided because the presentation is evidence-based consisting of factual data, texts, figures, etc.

The drawback of fact sheets can be a language barrier because commonly, the indigenous people or other people of different communities know their cultural language and apply that it to speak to others. This acts as a barrier because the people from such a community are unable to study the information provided through the fact sheet (Glowacki, Weatherson, & Faulkner, 2018). Similarly, literacy and physiological barriers, lack of support, and bias are also the hurdles in health promotion. As many people go through these issues they are unable to reach the information provided via a fact sheet (Glowacki, Weatherson, & Faulkner, 2018). This usually happens because they do not get the chance to get assistance to go through the key points mentioned in the fact sheet. If these barriers are not present then the fact sheet can help in providing information to the consumers and advocate the people to improve their lifestyle in order to overcome such issues.

References for Primary Healthcare Nursing

ACSQHC. (2017). Writing health information for consumers. Retrieved from: https://www.safetyandquality.gov.au/sites/default/files/migrated/Health-Literacy-Fact-Sheet-4-Writing-health-information-for-consumers.pdf

Agyapong, V. I. O., Farren, C., & McAuliffe, E. (2016). Improving Ghana’s mental healthcare through task-shifting- psychiatrists and health policy directors perceptions about government’s commitment and the role of community mental health workers. Globalization and Health, 12(1). DOI:10.1186/s12992-016-0199-z 

Arnold, M., Piorkowski, D., Reimer, D., Richards, J., Tsay, J., Varshney, K. R., … Olteanu, A. (2019). FactSheets: Increasing trust in AI services through supplier’s declarations of conformity. IBM Journal of Research and Development, 63(4/5), 6:1–6:13. DOI:10.1147/jrd.2019.2942288 

Chen, X., Hay, J. L., Waters, E. A., Kiviniemi, M. T., Biddle, C., Schofield, E., Li, Y., Kaphingst, K., Orom, H. (2018). Health literacy and use and trust in health information. Journal of Health Communication, 1–11. DOI:10.1080/10810730.2018.1511658

CTB. (2020). Section 15. Creating Fact Sheets on Local Issues. Retrieved from: https://ctb.ku.edu/en/table-of-contents/participation/promoting-interest/fact-sheets/main

Innstrand, S. T., & Christensen, M. (2018). The development and implementation of a holistic health promotion intervention programme especially adapted for staff working in the higher educational sector: the ARK study. Global Health Promotion, 175797591878687. doi:10.1177/1757975918786877 

Felton, A & Wright, N. (2017). Simulation in mental health nurse education: The development, implementation and evaluation of an educational innovation. Nurse Education in Practice, 26, 46-52. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nepr.2017.06.005

Glowacki, K., Weatherson, K., & Faulkner, G. (2018). Barriers and facilitators to health care providers’ promotion of physical activity for individuals with mental illness: A scoping review. Mental Health and Physical Activity. DOI:10.1016/j.mhpa.2018.10.006 

Karanikola, M., Kaikoushi, K., Doulougeri, K., Koutrouba, A., & Papathanassoglou, E. (2018). Perceptions of professional role in community mental health nurses: The interplay of power relation between nurses and mentally ill individuals. Archives of Psychiatric Nursing, 32, 5, 677-687. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apnu.2018.03.007 

Lewinski, A. A., & Simmons, L. A. (2018). Nurse Knowledge and Engagement in Health Policy Making: Findings From a Pilot Study. The Journal of Continuing Education in Nursing, 49(9), 407–415. DOI:10.3928/00220124-20180813-06 

Luther, L., Gearhart, T., Fukui, S., Morse, G., Rollins, A. L., & Salyers, M. P. (2017). Working overtime in community mental health: Associations with clinician burnout and perceived quality of care. Psychiatric Rehabilitation Journal, 40(2), 252–259. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1037/prj0000234

O’Connor, C. A., Dyson, J., Cowdell, F., & Watson, R. (2017). Do universal school-based mental health promotion programmes improve the mental health and emotional wellbeing of young people? A literature review. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 27(3-4), e412–e426. DOI:10.1111/jocn.14078 

NAMI. (n.d.). Advocacy. Retrieved from: https://www.nami.org/NAMInet/Operations-Governance/Awareness/AKA/Mental-Health-Fact-Sheets

Powell, K., Thurston, M., & Bloyce, D. (2017). Theorising lifestyle drift in health promotion: Explaining community and voluntary sector engagement practices in disadvantaged areas. Critical Public Health, 27(5), 554-565. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/09581596.2017.1356909

RHIhub. (2020). Module 6: Sustainability for rural mental health programs. Retrieved from: https://www.ruralhealthinfo.org/toolkits/mental-health/6/sustainability

Sayers, J, M., Cleary, M., Hunt, G, E., & Burmeister, O, K. (2017). Service and infrastructure needs to support recovery programmes for indigenous community mental health consumers. International Journal of Mental Health Nursing, 26(2), 142-150. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/inm.12287

Shepard, M. F., Elliott, B. A., Falk, D. R., & Regal, R. R. (1999). Public Health Nurses’ Responses to Domestic Violence: A Report from the Enhanced Domestic Abuse Intervention Project. Public Health Nursing, 16(5), 359–366. DOI:10.1046/j.1525-1446.1999.00359.x

Stanhope, M., & Lancaster, J. (2019). Public health nursing e-book: Population-centered health care in the community. Amsterdam, Netherlands: Elsevier.

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