According to Ceballos-Francisco et al. (2018), when a person gets injured the body’s immune system gets activated to prevent the risk of infection and blood loss. On an injury there is the initiation of inflammation and blood clot formation, the body vessels also constrict with the release of some chemicals at the site of injury. When the body gets injury it generates inflammation associated with various other factors like redness, heat, pain, and swelling (Mansfield & Naik, 2020).
According to Martin & Badeaux (2017), whenever the body gets injury then inflammation occurs as a response of the activated immune system. This inflammation includes various steps and many other factors are also involved in it. Step 1- when there is an injury the body’s cells start the release of chemical substances to attract the immune cells to the site of injury. Step 2 – the macrophages are the first to arrive at the site and fight with the invading pathogens. Step 3 – when the white blood cells fight with the invading pathogen at the site of injury to prevent the infection than blood vessels also get widen up to let more cells to enter the injury site and increase the inflammatory response with characteristic signs like redness, pain, heat, and swelling. Step 4 – immune cells perform the phagocytosis the invading pathogen and fibroblasts repair the site of injury by constricting the site to prevent blood loss and formation of a blood clot. After some time, the site gets healed and back to normal. The various immune cells that are involved during this inflammatory response are neutrophils, cytokines, macrophages, and a few others.
The clinical manifestation produced during this issue are – heat, pain, fever, redness, and swelling. According to Li et al. (2017), there is increased flow to blood to blood site so get more immune cells, this results in more heat in that region. The blood vessels are also dilated to increase the penetration of immune cells to the injury site with an increased number of white blood cells, this result in redness of that area. The swelling is also one of the characteristic features that are observed because there is increased permeability of blood vessels and increased vasodilatation. The pain occurs because the pain receptors are activated in that area that sends signals to the brain about the injury on a particular site of the body.
Nursing care can help in relieving the symptoms of injury and inflammation. According to Dalvi et al. (2017), to get rid of swelling the patient should be provided with massage and exercises. Other pharmacological interventions are – use of drugs. The use of anti-inflammatory drugs like aspirin, naproxen, and others can be used to reduce swelling, inflammation, and pain. The patient can be asked to use more pillows to prevent further wounds injury and while dressing the area should be wiped with alcohol to prevent the risk of infection (Schotthoefer et al., 2017).
Ceballos-Francisco, D., Guardiola, F. A., Cordero, H., Cuesta, A., & Esteban, M. Á. (2018). Humoral immune parameters in serum after induced skin injury. Immunology, 75, 291-294. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fsi.2018.02.017
Dalvi, P., Sun, B., Tang, N., & Pulliam, L. (2017). Immune activated monocyte exosomes alter microRNAs in brain endothelial cells and initiate an inflammatory response through the TLR4/MyD88 pathway. Scientific Reports, 7(1), 1-12. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-017-10449-0
Li, J., Liu, F., & Lv, J. (2017). Effect of early rehabilitation nursing care after emergency PCI on hemodynamics and serum inflammatory factors in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). International Journal of Medical Sciences. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/1983-1447.2020.20190074
Mansfield, K., & Naik, S. (2020). Focus: Skin: Unraveling immune-epithelial interactions in skin homeostasis and injury. Journal of Biology and Medicine, 93(1), 133.
Martin, J. B., & Badeaux, J. E. (2017). Interpreting laboratory tests in infection: Making sense of biomarkers in sepsis and systemic inflammatory response syndrome for intensive care unit patients. Critical Care Nursing Clinics, 29(1), 119-130. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cnc.2016.09.004
Schotthoefer, A. M., Schrodi, S. J., Meece, J. K., Fritsche, T. R., & Shukla, S. K. (2017). Pro-inflammatory immune responses are associated with clinical signs and symptoms of human anaplasmosis. PloS One, 12(6), e0179655. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0179655
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