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Primary Health Care

Introduction to Ottawa Charter Diabetes Management

Diabetes mellitus is one of the most common non-communicable diseases that have been acknowledged globally (Khorrami, 2020). As per statistical findings, more than one million of the Australian adults over the age of 18 years and above are suffering from diabetes mellitus. This ratio is found to be higher in men than in women. As far as age specific rates are concerned, females above the age of 45 years have a higher reported ratio, as compared to their male counterparts of the same age group (Huo, 2018). The spread of population having diabetes as their diagnosis is mainly concentrated in major cities and through the inner regional sections. The cases have been reported less in the remote areas, but that can also be due to lack of healthcare facilities to collect the appropriate data. It is also found to be more prevalent in lower socioeconomic regions, those in higher socioeconomic regions. Ottawa charter was formed thirty years before in November, 1986 (Thompson, 2018). It was formed by World Health Organization (WHO), as a structural framework to help with constructing health promotional programs. These programs were mainly formulated to analyze the various health determinants. This charter covers the advocacy for health actions to be taken under multi-directional umbrella including political, economic, cultural, environmental, behavioural and biological etc. Ottawa charter covers five major elements of healthcare promotion.

Nurses can be considered as the main and vital member of the healthcare team. They can work in close collaboration with the other professionals as well as with the patients, to enable them with the required care and support. They can be observed as the connecting link between the medical organization and the patient, ensuring smooth facilitation of functioning of the Ottawa Charter for the betterment of the health promotion for common masses (Agide, 2018). The following essay will help in identifying the role of healthcare nurses in promoting these elements, in respect with the diabetes care, to be rendered for the general population, suffering from the health condition and its underlying impairments.

Building Healthy Public Policy

This can be carried out by identifying the social determinants of the population to be considered. The nurses can work with multiple sectors and agencies to be used in identifying for enabling the data for the same. The main focus can be divided by the nurses on public health organizations that can help in drafting the care plan and policies to be rendered for the common masses. The nurses can help the policy makers, by providing them an insight about the impact of the disease on the patient and their life. This insight can be beneficial for enabling care to the patient, by providing supportive communities and environments, based on robust healthcare policy approaches (Peimani, 2019). Nurses can also help in identifying the barriers that can be considered before drafting these policies. Being constantly and directly engaged in patient care, nurses have a vital role to play in the same. This will also be useful in enabling a more flexible and schematic approach for formulating a single solution, keeping a close consideration for patient population’s needs and requirements. This broad base approach can help in developing a strong partnership between public and healthcare sectors for influencing further investigating in the amendments to be required for the best and improved healthcare outcomes from the patients.

Creating Supportive Environment

World Health Organization has laid emphasis on providing a supportive environment for creating preventive measures for conditions that are chronic in nature. This has also been identified from the point of view of analysing the situation from a global perspective. Some of these chronic conditions include, diabetes, hypertension, obesity and so on. The main focus of the plan is to make sure that health-promoting environment should be formulated to reduce the impact of various modifiable risk factors. These can include tobacco use, diet regulation, physical activity and alcohol abuse, which can be considered as some of the risk factors for diabetes. Nurses can help in segregating the patient population on the basis of these risk factors and thus, highlighting upon the secondary areas of concerns to be focused upon (Vu, 2019). Nurses can help on the community level, to induct and create a supportive pattern, with the help of formal organizational bodies. The main area of focus should be laid on promoting lifestyle behaviour and enabling stress management for the patients. The formal organizational bodies can enable these changes based on the suggestion provided by the nurses, to enable specified care model for providing patient care. Community participation can be considered for this purpose, to ensure target sectors to be focused upon (Majeed, 2017).

Developing Personal Skills

Apart from all other elements of Ottawa charter, this can be deemed as one of the most vital level for the care plan. This help can be provided by the nurses to the patients, in terms of imparting education for managing their chronic illness and helping with development of coping strategies as well. This can be fruitful method for enabling and empowering a more effective intervention management strategy or technique. Thus, enabling a huge potential for behavioural changes and decisions to be made with respect to individual basis. Developing personal skills mainly focus on self-care management techniques to be promoted in the patients (Bteich, 2019). Diabetes can be one of the main conditions that can be effectively managed in patients, through imparting education to them for managing their condition. Nurses can also help in promoting culturally reformed clinical practices to ensure that target population is met with the special attention and care to be provided. Nurses can also take up the role of policy makers, to help in developing national level framework for these patients. This can be carried out by constantly being involved in comprehensive assessment for drafting educational programs for patient’s correspondence (Davy, 2017). This will enable a more tailored and customized approach for educational interventions and programs to be formulated both for public and people suffering from diabetes mellitus.

Strengthening Community Action

This is quite crucial from the point of view ensuring great success of overall healthcare transformation. Communities can be engaged in public participation and prevention of control for diabetes mellitus. This can be done for enlisting and making sure to fetch more relevant and visible healthcare outcomes from the patient population. Local knowledge and skills should be considered from the point of view of planning and decision-making process to ensure that the interventions and desired outcomes are drafted, from the point of view of aligning the same with the community needs and assets (Boutayeb, 2016). Nurses can help in defining community-based action, for focusing on the required actions to align the same in sync with the social determinants of health. Nurses can also play a vital role in screening process to be carried out on a community level for early detection and early intervention strategies to be inculcated. This manner can also ensure in developing a culturally and contextually sensitive community-based intervention for enabling preventive measures in place. Training and planning for financial facilities, can also be ensured for developing and implementing sustainable programs in place (Fry, 2017). The nursing professionals can also help in supporting formation of a robust healthcare network for the patient population to manage their care at every defined hierarchal structure.

Reorienting Health Services

Reorienting health services can be carried out from the point of view of focusing on the health promotion of community and enabling a treatment-centred care for the patient. Nurses can help with providing a sound perspective for coordinated risk reduction and prevention. This is required for establishing long-term care plan and enabling sustainable and effective measures in place. This can also include improving care access to the patient, ensuring essential drugs to be available at lower costing and so on (McFarlane, 2016). The primary healthcare systems are also to be aligned with the mainstream healthcare domain focusing on promoting reduction in disassociation in facilitating care for the patient. The main focus of paradigm can also be highlighted on the reduction of barriers for universal care management for the patients. Nurses can also support in the system by identifying the multidisciplinary team members to be included in the rehabilitation system, to work as a team for assisting primary care and prevention methods for general population (Smith, 2016). Thus, reducing overall negative impact on them. This also ensures segregation of conceptual framework from the organizational framework, to fit within the refined engineering model of healthcare.

Conclusion on Ottawa Charter Diabetes Management

The paper helped in reflecting on the pattern as to how Ottawa Charter can help in highlighting the solution for better management and prevention of diabetes mellitus. There are many underlying challenges in ensuring a sound and holistic care to the patients. The main concern is promotion of healthcare facilities in lower socioeconomic group of population. There is also a dire need of developing newer and improved healthcare strategies, to make sure that the changes are occurring on a grass root level. Healthcare professionals can make use of this Charter to ensure that a comprehensive system can be formulated as adopted as a part of a long-term plan to ensure the sound implementation and functioning of the various healthcare policies conducted. This will be helpful in ensuring in improving health in general and also in overcoming the health-related concerns with diabetes mellitus.

References for Ottawa Charter Diabetes Management

Agide, F. D., & Shakibazadeh, E. (2018). Contextualizing Ottawa Charter frameworks for type 2 diabetes prevention: A professional perspective as a review. Ethiopian Journal of Health Sciences28(3), 355-364. https://doi.org/10.4314/ejhs.v28i3.14

Boutayeb, A., Lamlili, M., & Boutayeb, W. (2016). Health promotion and diabetes care in developing countries. Diabetes & Metabolism42(4), 302. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.diabet.2016.07.025

Bteich, M., da Silva Miranda, E., El Khoury, C., Gautier, L., Lacouture, A., & Yankoty, L. I. (2019). A proposed core model of the new public health for a healthier collectivity: how to sustain transdisciplinary and intersectoral partnerships. Critical Public Health29(2), 241-256. https://doi.org/10.1080/09581596.2017.1419167

Davy, C., Kite, E., Sivak, L., Brown, A., Ahmat, T., Brahim, G., ... & Mitchell, F. (2017). Towards the development of a wellbeing model for aboriginal and Torres Strait islander peoples living with chronic disease. BMC Health Services Research17(1), 1-13. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12913-017-2584-6

Fry, D., & Zask, A. (2017). Applying the Ottawa Charter to inform health promotion programme design. Health Promotion International32(5), 901-912. https://doi.org/10.1093/heapro/daw022

Huo, L., Magliano, D. J., Rancière, F., Harding, J. L., Nanayakkara, N., Shaw, J. E., & Carstensen, B. (2018). Impact of age at diagnosis and duration of type 2 diabetes on mortality in Australia 1997–2011. Diabetologia61(5), 1055-1063. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00125-018-4544-z

Khorrami, Z., Rezapour, M., Etemad, K., Yarahmadi, S., Khodakarim, S., Hezaveh, A. M., ... & Khanjani, N. (2020). The patterns of non-communicable disease Multimorbidity in Iran: A Multilevel Analysis. Scientific Reports10(1), 1-11. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-59668-y

Majeed, T., Forder, P. M., Mishra, G., Kendig, H., & Byles, J. E. (2017). Exploring workforce participation patterns and chronic diseases among middle-aged Australian men and women over the life course. Journal of Aging and Health29(2), 343-361. https://doi.org/10.1177%2F0898264316635586

McFarlane, K., Judd, J., Devine, S., & Watt, K. (2016). Reorientation of health services: Enablers and barriers faced by organisations when increasing health promotion capacity. Health Promotion Journal of Australia27(2), 118-133. https://doi.org/10.1071/HE15078

Peimani, M., Nasli-Esfahani, E., & Shakibazadeh, E. (2019). Ottawa charter framework as a guide for type 2 diabetes prevention and control in Iran. Journal of Diabetes & Metabolic Disorders, 1-7. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40200-018-0381-3

Smith, C., McNaughton, D. A., & Meyer, S. (2016). Client perceptions of group education in the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus in South Australia. Australian Journal of Primary Health22(4), 360-367. https://doi.org/10.1071/PY15008

Thompson, S. R., Watson, M. C., & Tilford, S. (2018). The Ottawa Charter 30 years on: still an important standard for health promotion. International Journal of Health Promotion and Education56(2), 73-84. https://doi.org/10.1080/14635240.2017.1415765

Vu, A., Rutherford, S., & Phung, D. (2019). Heat health prevention measures and adaptation in older populations—A systematic review. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health16(22), 4370. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16224370

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