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Primary Health Care

Table of Contents

Introduction.

The key strategy 1: Re-orient health practices.

The key strategy 2: Develop personal skills.

The key strategy 3: Strengthen community action.

The key strategy 4: Create a supportive environment

The key strategy 5: Built public health policy.

Conclusion.

References.

Introduction to Role of Nurse in Health Promotion

According to Barry et al. (2019), health promotion enables individuals to have strong control over the determinants of health and various other factors influencing their health. The role of the nurse is also of great significance in health promotion. The approaches to health promotion are as follows: patient-centred care, educational, medical, societal change, and behavioural change. Health promotion helps in reducing the chances of the development of various serious health problems. According to Clendon & Munns (2018), for health promotion the 5 key strategies for the Ottawa charter are as follows: re-orient health practices, develop personal skills, strengthen community action, create a supportive environment, and built public health policy. In this essay, the chosen condition is diabetes mellitus and the following sections will discuss the role of nurse for health promotion under the 5 key strategies identified under the Ottawa charter. 

The Key Strategy 1: Re-Orient Health Practices

According to Fogarty et al. (2018), re-orient health practices means the focus should majorly increase on health prevention and promotion rather than primarily on curative and clinical services. According to Fry et al. (2017), the nurse should educate diabetic pediatric patients and their family members during their treatment about the disease and its medication administrations or complications. They should also transfer the information during discharge planning as well for safe and long-term care services. The older patient should be educated and informed by the nurses for the complications of the disease and the skipping of medications. The diabetic specialist nurses should have strong relationships with other associated health professionals as well for patient-centred care and effective delivery of services that will improve the health and result in prevention. The patient should be encouraged by the nurses to perform daily physical activities, get a healthy diet plan form the nutritionists, and the patient should be asked to get his/her vital signs or blood glucose levels checked so that the levels are kept under frequent monitoring and the re-occurrence of the disease is prevented. According to (Nikitara et al., 2019), the patient should be encouraged for self-care with the guidance of the registered nurse. After the discharge as well, the patient should be asked to report and observe the unexpected issues to prevent the disease and ensure health promotion.

The Key Strategy 2: Develop Personal Skills

According to Boutayeb et al. (2016), the development of personal skills is very important in health promotion as it ensures effective interaction. The nurses should develop string interpersonal skills like with aged diabetic patients a long time should be delivered for interactions and proper eye-to-contact with a clear acknowledgment of their doubts. The nurse should ensure that information is transferred to the patient by using simple language and a slow rate of speech. If the patient is communicated effectively then there will be effective health promotion. There should be encouraged the participation of diabetic patients in programs for increased awareness, and there should be the use of pamphlets and brochures of simple but effective clinical information so that the patient of each age group can understand and aim of health prevention and promotion can be achieved. If the patient is unable to speak English, then he/she should be explained about the health issues in his/her language easily and simply. There should be the use of oral, written, and various other modes of communication so that pediatric and the other age group diabetic patients and can be assessed and complications can be prevented. According to O’Meara et al. (2019), the nurse should educate the patient and their family members about the treatments and care plans. The nurse should take part in programs for diabetic patients to ensure that they get experience and more knowledge about health issues. This will ensure the effective prevention of the disease with evidence-based practices.

The Key Strategy 3: Strengthen Community Action

According to Javanparast et al. (2018), the nurse should take part in programs for screenings of diabetes, administrations of medications, delivering fliers, and educational assemblies. The community health nurses should spread awareness about the effects of smoking, alcohol, and high sugar content diet on diabetic patient’s health. Such responsible nurses should also visit the rural and remote areas for health promotion and spread the information about the health issue for prevention of the disease. There should be conduction of health awareness programs and diabetic patients and their family members or peers should be encouraged to take part in it. According to Agide et al. (2018), it is found that rural and remote areas individuals due to poor education and low economic rates have less or limited education leading to complex health issues. Such a population should be introduced to electronic health services so that wider communities can be made accessible to health services and offers. The nurse and other health professionals should be encouraged to get complete information about the patient’s cultural background so that culturally safe and holistic care can be delivered to every section of society. The nurse should not only deliver care services but should also support the clients as well. The nurse should support aged patients for advanced care planning and less serious patients for referrals.

The Key Strategy 4: Create a Supportive Environment

According to Amuda et al. (2019), the nurses should ensure that there is the establishment of a supportive environment by acting as an educator, evaluator, and advocator and investigator. The nurse should ensure the involvement of family members for decision-making and other treatment plans of the patient. For example, the involvement of the mother in the case of the pediatric diabetic patient and family members in the case of old and aged patients who cannot take their own decisions. There should be conduction of programs for health promotion, where society should be educated about the disease and medication administration ways so that no school-going child feels uncomfortable while medication administrations. It should be ensured that there is physical as well as emotionally strong relationship development with the care providers so that health can be improved and promoted effectively. If there is any issue faced by the diabetic patient during his/her treatment or after discharge then the nurse should exhibit the principles of advocacy and this principle should also be used for other health co-workers for preventing health issues. For example, there should be used to alert systems so that old patient does not miss the medication, subjective and objective data collection should be performed, asking the patients for feedback, and they should also ensure that there are no stereotyped attitude or stigma issues faced by aboriginals or other community patients while receiving care. As it might when that due to stigma and poor supportive environment the patient does not clear the doubts and his/her issues can lead to increased disease rates (Morony et al., 2018).

The Key Strategy 5: Built Public Health Policy

According to Wilson et al. (2017), the nurse should ensure that there should be the use of advocacy, professional ethics, and experiences. The nurse should have policymaking knowledge and associated skills to address the challenges professionally. The issues faced by diabetic patients during their treatments, medication administrations, or discharge planning should be informed about to the higher authorities. The ideas or views of the patients and their family members about the care services should be forwards to the higher authorities. The nurses should identify and issues and work with policymakers for making advanced health care policies. The nurses should take part in procedures that involve policymaking or reviewing that can impact the health of patients, family members, or the health care system (deMolitor et al., 2020).

Conclusion on Role of Nurse in Health Promotion

Health promotion is a very important part that prevents the disease and helps in maintaining the good health of the community. The Ottawa charter key strategies are kept in mind ensuring health promotion. The nurses play a very important role in delivering care services to the patients during their hospital days as well as after their discharge. They encourage the patients for self-care, a healthy diet, daily physical activities, and many others so that there is the prevention of bad health conditions. The nurses also ensure that they deliver complete information about the disease, its signs, symptoms, and medication procedure as well. This ensures that health is promoted with the help of effective communication, effective personal skills, advocacy, and others. The patients and family members are also involved in the care and health promotion so that expected results are achieved. The nurses should also ensure that in rural and remote areas awareness and information is spread in the society for health promotion and disease prevention.

References for Role of Nurse in Health Promotion

Agide, F. D., & Shakibazadeh, E. (2018). Contextualizing Ottawa charter frameworks for type 2 diabetes prevention: A professional perspective as a review. Ethiopian Journal of Health Sciences28(3), 355-364. https://doi.org/10.4314/ejhs.v28i3.14

Amuda, A. T., & Berkowitz, S. A. (2019). Diabetes and the built environment: Evidence and policies. Current Diabetes Reports19(7), 35. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11892-019-1162-1

Barry, M. M., Clarke, A. M., Petersen, I., & Jenkins, R. (Eds.). (2019). Implementing mental health promotion. Springer Nature. https://link.springer.com/book/10.1007%2F978-3-030-23455-3

Boutayeb, A., Lamlili, M., & Boutayeb, W. (2016). Health promotion and diabetes care in developing countries. Diabetes & Metabolism42(4), 302. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.diabet.2016.07.025

Clendon, J., & Munns, A. (2018). Community health and wellness: Principles of primary health care. Elsevier Health Sciences. https://books.google.co.in/books?hl=en&lr=&id=tbRqDwAAQBAJ&oi=fnd&pg=PP1&dq=munns+and+clendon&ots=hLCvAn2WpP&sig=cwj41eTlZo7wuOq8xUpd3oq1exI&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q=munns%20and%20clendon&f=false

deMolitor, L., Dunbar, M., & Vallis, M. (2020). Diabetes distress in adults living with type 1 and type 2 diabetes: A public health issue.  Journal of Diabetes44(6), 549-554. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcjd.2020.06.012

Fogarty, M., Coalter, N., Gordon, A., & Breen, H. (2018). Proposing a health promotion framework to address gambling problems in Australian Indigenous communities. Health Promotion International33(1), 115-122. https://doi.org/10.1093/heapro/daw060

Fry, D., & Zask, A. (2017). Applying the Ottawa Charter to inform health promotion programme design. Health Promotion International32(5), 901-912. https://doi.org/10.1093/heapro/daw022

Javanparast, S., Windle, A., Freeman, T., & Baum, F. (2018). Community health worker programs to improve healthcare access and equity: Are they only relevant to low-and middle-income countries?. International Journal of Health Policy and Management7(10), 943. https://dx.doi.org/10.15171%2Fijhpm.2018.53

Morony, S., Lamph, E., Muscat, D., Nutbeam, D., Dhillon, H. M., Shepherd, H., & Luxford, K. (2018). Improving health literacy through adult basic education in Australia. Health Promotion International33(5), 867-877. https://doi.org/10.1093/heapro/dax028

Nikitara, M., Constantinou, C. S., Andreou, E., & Diomidous, M. (2019). The role of nurses and the facilitators and barriers in diabetes care: A mixed methods systematic literature review. Behavioral Sciences (Basel, Switzerland)9(6), 61. https://doi.org/10.3390/bs9060061

O’Meara, L., Williams, S. L., Ames, K., Lawson, C., Saluja, S., & Vandelanotte, C. (2019). Low health literacy is associated with risk of developing type 2 diabetes in a nonclinical population. The Diabetes Educator45(4), 431-441. https://doi.org/10.1177%2F0145721719857548

Wilson, A. L., McNaughton, D., Meyer, S. B., & Ward, P. R. (2017). Understanding the links between resilience and type-2 diabetes self-management: A qualitative study in South Australia. Archives of Public Health75(1), 56. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13690-017-0222-8

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