Name of the health issue: Prostate cancer
Response: the issue is a priority for Australian healthcare industry because prostate cancer is considered as the most diagnosed cancer in Australian males Ettridge et al., (2018). 19, 508 new cases of prostate cancer are reported in 2019 which have increased the healthcare burden to 23% (Schultz et al., 2019). Prostate cancer have a significant economic burden in Australia and it is expected to get worse. The incidence rate of prostate cancer is 1 in 350 men under 50 years of age, 1 in 52 men under 60 years of age and 60% in men over the age of 65 years (Schultz et al., 2019). The issue is a priority so that the healthcare burden can be minimized and greater awareness can be imparted.
Ettridge, K. A., Bowden, J. A., Chambers, S. K., Smith, D. P., Murphy, M., Evans, S. M., ... & Miller, C. L. (2018). “Prostate cancer is far more hidden…”: Perceptions of stigma, social isolation and help‐seeking among men with prostate cancer. European Journal of Cancer Care, 27(2), e12790.
Schultz, N. M., Penson, D. F., Wilson, S. D., Song, Y., Yang, H., Ramaswamy, K., & Lowentritt, B. (2019). Health care resource utilization and costs associated with corticosteroid use in patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer: an administrative claims analysis. Journal of Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy, 25(8), 889-897
The prostate cancer awareness program is an educational intervention in which the participants are informed about the risks and benefits of prostate cancer screening. The participants are informed about the balanced information about the impact of prostate cancer on their lives. This is done through mailed packets that contain specific information about the condition. The packets do not contain reference to any screening centers but they encourage the Australian men to make best choices regarding their health. The mailed packets contain a video and a booklet.
The video describe the prevalence and incidence of prostate cancer in Australia and the booklet describe the physiology, pathology, anatomy, clinical manifestations, comorbidities and risk factors of the prostate cancer. The video is developed so that Australian men can relate to it and get motivated to undergo prostate cancer screening. It describe the story of 3 men who belong to different age group. These men are discussing their story regarding prostate cancer with their family and friends which can be relatable to a number of Australian men. Some public health agencies such as the cancer council Victoria are integrated to help and support the men screened for prostate cancer.
The key features that are opted in the prostate cancer awareness program include:
Screening: the mailed packet contain a video and a booklet that guide the participants to undergo prostate cancer screening. It has been seen that real life stories can motivate a person effectively (Bledow et al., 2017). The video developed to motivate the Australian men for prostate cancer screening contain real life stories in which 3 different Australian men discuss their screening experiences with their family and friends. Early screening can definitely prevent further degradation hence the participants are motivated to undergo timely prostate cancer screening.
Awareness regarding risk factors: The booklet developed in the mail packets contain information regarding the symptoms, pathophysiology, and risk factors of the condition. According to Olsson, Barcellos and Alfredsson (2017), informing people about the potential risk factors of a condition can prevent them for developing such conditions in future. Keeping men aged 60 or above in priority can be effective for the health promotion plan because people over 60 years of age are at greater risk of developing prostate cancer.
Empowerment and independence to choose services: The participants are not forced to choose any certain screening services so they are not provided with any reference. In fact the participants are independently motivated to consult with their physician and family. This can not only make them feel independent but also empowered.
Bledow, R., Carette, B., Kühnel, J., & Bister, D. (2017). Learning from others’ failures: The effectiveness of failure stories for managerial learning. Academy of Management Learning & Education, 16(1), 39-53
Olsson, T., Barcellos, L. F., & Alfredsson, L. (2017). Interactions between genetic, lifestyle and environmental risk factors for multiple sclerosis. Nature Reviews Neurology, 13(1), 25
The principles of primary healthcare include health promotion, use of appropriate technology, public participation, increased accessibility of the program interventions and inter-sectorial cooperation. According to Cancelliere et al., (2016), the primary healthcare programs functions to minimize the risk of certain diseases or injuries.
The prostate cancer health awareness program is developed on the principles of “health promotion, use of appropriate technology, public participation, increased accessibility of the program interventions and inter-sectorial cooperation”. Health promotion helps a community or members of community to strengthen the conditions that contribute to god health. Education and awareness regarding the risk factors and pathophysiology can help the community members to understand the disease and undergo timely screening (Smith et al., 2018).
Further, the principle of appropriate technology discuss the use of medical technologies that are affordable and accessible to every person. Use of electronic packages in the prostate cancer awareness program indicate the effectivity of the program. Electronic mail packages are easily accessible and affordable to the community members. The third principle of a primary health promotion program is increased accessibility. It is important for a program to make sure that the services are understandable and accessible to all the people irrespective of their age, language and location (Nishimura et al., 2019).
Use of mail packages is a very effective strategy for the purpose of enhancing accessibility. However, some people that face language barriers or age barriers in understanding the content of booklets can use the videos for developing understanding regarding the issue. This not only enhance accessibility to the content but also motivate the community members to undergo screening. The fourth principle is to enhance public participation. Encouraging the community members to undergo screening and contact their general practitioner can involve them in their health plan.
Sharing reference to the participants can limit the scope of health prevention. But, asking the participants to choose services that best suit their location and comfort can lead to an integrated and effective health management (Duru et al., 2018). Finally, the principle of inter-sectorial collaboration is accomplished by involving public health agencies in the program. The public health agencies are asked to monitor and help the participants that need assistance with their condition.
Cancelliere, C., Donovan, J., Stochkendahl, M. J., Biscardi, M., Ammendolia, C., Myburgh, C., & Cassidy, J. D. (2016). Factors affecting return to work after injury or illness: best evidence synthesis of systematic reviews. Chiropractic & Manual Therapies, 24(1), 32.
Duru, O. K., Middleton, T., Tewari, M. K., & Norris, K. (2018). The landscape of diabetic kidney disease in the United States. Current Diabetes Reports, 18(3), 14
Nishimura, R. A., O’Gara, P. T., Bavaria, J. E., Brindis, R. G., Carroll, J. D., Kavinsky, C. J., ... & Mauri, L. (2019). 2019 AATS/ACC/ASE/SCAI/STS expert consensus systems of care document: a proposal to optimize care for patients with valvular heart disease: a joint report of the American Association for Thoracic Surgery, American College of Cardiology, American Society of Echocardiography, Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions, and Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 73(20), 2609-2635
Smith, R., Frazer, K., Hyde, A., O'Connor, L., & Davidson, P. (2018). “Heart disease never entered my head”: Women's understanding of coronary heart disease risk factors. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 27(21-22), 3953-3967.
The Ottawa Charter of health promotion focus on developing healthy public policy, enhancing the actions of communities, re-orienting the health services, developing personal skills and creating supportive environment (Thompson, Watson & Tilford, 2018). The Ottawa Charter also describe the strategies of “enable, advocate and mediate” in order to maximize public health. The strategies of the Ottawa carter of health promotion (enable, mediate and advocate) are used in the program by enabling access to information regarding prostate cancer, mediating access to timely screening and advocating for their health efficiencies (Thompson, Watson & Tilford, 2018). Main purpose of a health promotion plan is to increase the community control over their own health.
Enabling good health and wellbeing regarding a particular issue require use of strategies that inform the people about ways that can keep them healthy and addressing the things that lead to poor health statistics regarding the issue. The strategies of developing healthy public policy, developing personal skills and creating supportive environment are followed to increase the people’s control over their own health (Israel et al., 2017). Activities such as sharing real life experiences can develop a supportive environment for the people. Moreover, information and knowledge regarding the risk factors can develop personal skills of the community members which can decrease their incidence of prostate cancer. Late screening of prostate cancer lead to mortality and morbidity.
A program designed to educate and aware the population about prostate cancer screening and risk factors can improve public health and wellness. Enhancing the actions of communities, and re-orienting the health services can be effective health promotion strategies (Jenkins, 2019). The prostate cancer awareness program strive to enhance the involvement of participants in their own health by encouraging them to reach prostate cancer screening centers as per their preference. Better balance in investment and public health is made through using affordable procedures and providing support to the community members to access services that are affordable.
Enabling, mediating and advocating are the most beneficial strategies for enhancing people control over their health (Livingstone et al., 2017). Providing proper health related information can help a person overcome the risk factors of that condition which can ultimately decrease the health burden for that condition. Mediating resources that impart health information and awareness can further contribute to greater efficiency of the program.
Thompson, S. R., Watson, M. C., & Tilford, S. (2018). The Ottawa Charter 30 years on: still an important standard for health promotion. International Journal of Health Promotion and Education, 56(2), 73-84.
Israel, B. A., Schulz, A. J., Parker, E. A., Becker, A. B., Allen, A. J., Guzman, J. R., & Lichtenstein, R. (2017). Critical issues in developing and following CBPR
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Jenkins, R. (2019). Re-orienting Mental Health Services to Mental Health Promotion. In Implementing Mental Health Promotion (pp. 507-531). Springer, Cham.
Response: The program does not provide references of the healthcare agencies or support centers that can be assessed by the people who are screened positive for prostate cancer. The target group for the prostate cancer awareness program were Australian men and major focus of the program was Australian men above the age of 60 years. Positive screening for prostate cancer to the elderly men can be depressing and serious. Educating them about the healthcare services that provide affordable and effective health services can be effective for the improvement of the health awareness plan (Ma, Chan & Loke, 2017).
The prostate cancer awareness program should include after screening support services so that the target group who is screened positive can get access to required healthcare. Every person cannot reach effective and affordable healthcare on their own so having recommendations for the easily accessible and affordable after screening support services can be useful for the program and the community members. Support services such as the prostate cancer foundation in Australia can help the target group reach services and help them with prostate cancer testing and treatment (Dunn et al., 2018).
Dunn, J., Casey, C., Sandoe, D., Hyde, M. K., Cheron‐Sauer, M. C., Lowe, A., & Chambers, S. K. (2018). Advocacy, support and survivorship in prostate cancer. European Journal of Cancer Care, 27(2), e12644.
Ma, P. H., Chan, Z. C., & Loke, A. Y. (2017). The socio-ecological model approach to understanding barriers and facilitators to the accessing of health services by sex workers: a systematic review. AIDS and Behavior, 21(8), 2412-2438.
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