This discussion converges focus on the face mask strategy whether it can be implemented as an evidence based nursing practice or not, can the use of face masks in adults cause a reduction and support prevention of Covid-19 with human to human transmission of this airborne illness. Can face mask strategy fulfil the requirements to become an evidence based practice. This discussion leads to a study of detailed figure based data and information that provides with predictions and assumptions made for many states worldwide keeping in view the destruction caused by this virus and how it could have been reduced if this strategy was applied now leading to make it an evidence based practice that will help in provision of reduction phenomenon in adults if any airborne disease or pandemics will be encountered again, the discussion further provides with a conclusion that sums up the whole argument and provide with required results.
Since the pandemic started, face masks are a heated debate going around the globe. In the early stages, several government officials and health authorities led to discouragement of use of face masks for healthy people. Since the requirement arises is to evaluate recommendations for effective policy that directs control towards the community spreads of the Covid-19. Of all the practices for its spread, one of the major practices is the use of face mask, now the question highlighted is that in adults, wearing a mask is effective for preventing human to human transmission of airborne disease and illnesses especially Covid-19 or not. For this, evidence based data of states like US, Washington and New York and is researched and went through to see where and how much this is implemented (Brown, 2014).
As the pandemic rose, gradually the governments began to either require or recommend that their citizens the use of face masks and their provision in public. World health organization (WHO) in June, endorsed widespread use of face mask that was a step to prevent coronavirus transmission. According to studies and predictions, if at least 95 percent of public wear face masks in public, if this happened between June and October, this would have led to an estimated figure of 88000 deaths could be avoided in US that happened because of the carelessness.
As the research grows intense, it supports all three types of masks including N95 respirator, surgical/ medical masks and fabric masks (LoBiondo-Wood & Haber, 2014). The lancet published in early June assessed almost 172 observational studies those that related mostly to healthcare and encouraged the effects of physical distancing, use of face masks, eyes protection that may acquire transmission of SARS-Cov-2 and more of corona families. The results that focused of use of face mask in adults came out to provide with that N95 respirators provide with 96 percent protection and surgical masks gave 67 percent protection while fabric ones varied as the material used in them varies. Still, after the computational analysis and generation of results the wide spread use of face masks when coupled with lockdowns and implementation of SOCs might have helped preventing future waves of the rising infection (Stevens, 2013).
Though there is little research present on the efficiency of face masks an attempt to stop the spread of Covid-19 and it focused particularly on the fabric masks used by adults since it was easily available and used wide spread, Julii Brainard, a senior research associate at Norwich Medical school situated in UK stated that amongst the uncertainty, only mask use will nor prevent this infection from spreading, working from home, following SOCs and social distancing should also be practiced to prevent it at a higher rate.
Since the scientists did not come up with any vaccines or drugs for the cure of this infection the only way is to acquire and implement prevention techniques that include strategies that help blocking transmission of airborne illness from human to human through use of face masks, isolation, using drugs and vaccines that are allowed to be taken for Covid-19 to increase and strengthen immunity. Here, the face mask strategy is highlighted the most, the effects of wearing it and understanding advantage and role of it in prevention of coronavirus infection in adult citizens (Schaffer & Sandau & Diedrick, 2013).
It is well known by now that surgical masks can prevent the prevent inhalation of large droplets and sprays but have limited ability to filter microparticles up to a defines size. It also showed the interruption and interception between human during coronavirus. The villages and places under observation that consisted of 3000 people put in isolation in northern Italy showed results with 50-75% of population with positive pharyngeal molecular tests came out to be asymptomatic. In addition to these, those found in china at early stages too came out with 78% infectants asymptomatic (Feng & Shen & Xia & Song & Fan & Cowling, 2020).
As in the early stages of pandemic, July 2020, more than 16000000 individual cases were reported worldwide along with the figure of 600000 deaths reported from Covid-19. With the absence of any vaccine for this infection, the reducing transmission of the virus with the use of face masks by healthcare workers, nurses and doctors increased in an attempt to prevent this infection. This implementation was done in many states like hypothetical mask adoption for Washington DC and new York states and this suggested that instant near universal if 80% adoption is done then 50% effective masks could cause a prevention in the order of 17-45% of the projected deaths that happened over the two months in new York while this could decrease the peak daily death rate in adults by 34-58% figure (Lyu & Wehby, 2020).
In Washington where the transmission rate is less intense, 80% adoption of face masks could cause a reduction mortality by 24-65% with peak death rate as 15-69% compared to 2-9% mortality reduced in New York. These figures found in the researches led the fact that face masks play an important role thus can cause prevention of spread of human to human transmission of coronavirus in adults (Eikenberry & Mancuso & Iboi & Phan & Eikenberry & Kuang & Gumel, 2020).
Analyzing these figures and studying through the facts and figures that came out as a result of studies, the implementation of face mask strategy is only supported more and more as it is likely to cause a rapid decrease in the human transmission of the Covid-19 which is an airborne illness and can be transmitted between people easily. Face masks is the first step to cause a prevention that eventually leads to less spreads thus less infectants and cause less deaths in adults. Although an adult possess stronger immune system then infants and older people still, the virus is not something to be taken lightly it can spread and cause massive death rate even in adults, who are a future and the pillars of a state and cause its prosperity, face masks should be implemented as an evidence based practice as the studies provided with enough data to support this practice (Liu & Zhang, 2020).
This face mask use can be implemented as an evidence based nursing practice, since the evidence found even if not 100 percent but still the major portion found supports the use of face masks especially in adults as they are the ones interacting with the environment the most, working at offices and places, they encounter many challenges daily including airborne illness too (Cheng & Wong & Chuang & Chen & Sridhar & Yuen, 2020). Thus, face mask is something that should be implemented and a must part in their real lives. Face masks implemented as evidence based practice requires some key elements to be kept in mind. Searching for relevant figured based data, integrating the evidence and evaluating the outcomes with disseminating outcomes. The pandemic and the way of its spread provides with lots of figured based evidence and thus integrating it with the evaluated outcomes, the use of face masks in adults is highly recommended since it prevents a wide spread of infection (Fadare & Okoffo, 2020).
This discussion leads us to the conclusion that sums up and provides with the fact that face mask strategy can be applied as an evidence based practice and yes it can cause prevention of human to human transmission in adults that prevents spread of airborne illnesses as it provides with an interruption, a barricade between the transmission intercepting its spread between humans to a greater extent. The figures and data stated above supports it and thus provides with a strong platform to make this practice implemented widespread. While an adult holds sturdier immune system then children and older people, the virus is still not something to be neglected it can binge and reason enormous death rate even in adults, who are a forthcoming future and the success pillars of a nation causing its success, face masks are to be applied as an evidence based practice as the studies speak for its use since the spread of this infection can be stopped at a greater extent in adults. Thus yes, wearing a face mask is effective for preventing human to human transmission of airborne illnesses especially the current pandemic of Covid-19.
Brown, S. J. (2014). Evidence-based nursing: The research-practice connection. Jones & Bartlett Publishers.
LoBiondo-Wood, G., & Haber, J. (2014). Nursing research-e-book: methods and critical appraisal for evidence-based practice. Elsevier Health Sciences.
Stevens, K. (2013). The impact of evidence-based practice in nursing and the next big ideas. The Online Journal of Issues in Nursing, 18(2).
Schaffer, M. A., Sandau, K. E., & Diedrick, L. (2013). Evidence‐based practice models for organizational change: overview and practical applications. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 69(5), 1197-1209.
Feng, S., Shen, C., Xia, N., Song, W., Fan, M., & Cowling, B. J. (2020). Rational use of face masks in the COVID-19 pandemic. The Lancet Respiratory Medicine, 8(5), 434-436.
Lyu, W., & Wehby, G. L. (2020). Community Use Of Face Masks And COVID-19: Evidence From A Natural Experiment Of State Mandates In The US: Study examines impact on COVID-19 growth rates associated with state government mandates requiring face mask use in public. Health Affairs, 39(8), 1419-1425.
Eikenberry, S. E., Mancuso, M., Iboi, E., Phan, T., Eikenberry, K., Kuang, Y., ... & Gumel, A. B. (2020). To mask or not to mask: Modeling the potential for face mask use by the general public to curtail the COVID-19 pandemic. Infectious Disease Modelling.
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Cheng, V. C., Wong, S. C., Chuang, V. W., So, S. Y., Chen, J. H., Sridhar, S., ... & Yuen, K. Y. (2020). The role of community-wide wearing of face mask for control of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) epidemic due to SARS-CoV-2. Journal of Infection.
Fadare, O. O., & Okoffo, E. D. (2020). Covid-19 face masks: a potential source of microplastic fibers in the environment. The Science of the total environment, 737, 140279.
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