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The current pandemic situation has resulted in various problems within the life of the common mass. Challenges for the pandemic are mainly of getting contaminated from another person who has been infected by the following virus. This type of spreading is also called as community spreading. Several medical guidelines and rules have been issued by the federal government to overcome and fight against these challenges. The role of a nurse in public health setting ensures that people do bided and get informed about the various health guidelines that must be followed to avoid community spreading of the virus. Some possible measures implemented by the state and the other agencies were such as wearing of a clinical mask to avoid community spreading, washing and sanitizing body parts after getting exposed to the outer world and maintaining a fair social distance from each other. The main objective is to evaluate the effectiveness of these precautions and to implement alternative methods for reducing the consequences of community spreading.
Generating or acquiring information is a vital step in case of performing any research work. Various research papers are based on the approach of using masks during this pandemic spread so that the community spreading is reduced to certain extent. In the paper of TomLi it is suggested that the spread of the disease was found to be reduced by quite a large margin with the use of mask (WHO, 2020). In case of viral infection the use of mask can potentially decrease the exposure reduction by wearing a suitable mask. The transmission of virus was also estimated to be less within the general population by this procedural guideline. Hence by wearing masks it is assumed that the probability of secondary transmission or contamination from an affected person is very less with the practice of this process. A similar view is presented with the research findings in the article by Jiao Wang (Wang et al., 2020). This paper clearly identifies the issues for wearing mask and reducing the spread of the COVID 19 virus within the general population. For collecting these evidence various websites and journals from medical bases such as the NCBI, PubMed and Cinahl were used for this study.
The evidence gathered from these research papers suggested that the use of mask was highly effective in reducing the rate of contamination through community spreading in the general mass. Main transmission routes as per the research of Jiao Wang were the droplet contact transmissions, airborne transmissions and also with aerosol generating procedures for specific circumstances. The experiments and model of analysis used in the research papers were based on the reproduction number of the pandemic which was directly proportional to the rate of contact in between infected population and the susceptible individuals. Other than that the strategy was also implied based on the evidence gathered regarding the availability of mask within the entire population (Heymann & Shindo, 2020). Even the coverage area of range of the mask is major factor in deciding the effectiveness of reducing the contamination. The technology of aerosol reduction through the Mred mask is also an effective measure for filtering the virus efficiency. The masks are believed to control all the airborne diseases when a person infected coughs or redirect turbulent jets. Even in Missouri the spread of pandemic had been rising like a jungle fire. The CDC analysis depicted that about 62% out of 503 adults had agreed to adopt the newly launched guidelines for wearing a mask in order to avoid contamination within the general mass (Li et al., 2020). This research was carried out by Springfield-Greene County Health Department and the University of Kansas. Hence it can be said that the evidence based study was carried out in a proper and organized manner. The quality or standard of the evidence that has been gathered is very much reliable and comprehensive.
Evidence suggests wearing a face mask in public is effective for reducing the spread of airborne illnesses
Wearing of masks has been supported by majority of the research papers. The fact of wearing masks has been accepted all over the globe to reduce the spread of the pandemic. Various clinical assumptions and evidence based research were also utilized for determining the process of virus reproduction and pathway of contamination (De Groot et al., 2013). Wearing a mask shall definitely reduce the spread of the virus to certain extent. Wearing of a mask shall be considered as safe for the general public as because this protects them from getting contaminated by any means of airborne transmission. Other than that the transmission shall also take place during the time when people interact with each other in the form of face-to-face communication. This has higher risk of droplet contamination and may spread the virus from one person to other via this pathway. Wearing a mask helps in preventing such consequences and reduces the chance of person to person contamination. Thus it can be said that the wearing of ask is very much necessary and effective for avoiding community spreading and contamination among the public. Even when an infected person coughs or sneezes then in that case the directed droplet shall be limited within the person itself (Cdc.gov, 2020). This also reduces the chance of contamination. Other than that red masks were found to be reducing the rate of air transmission within the people. This does not allow the entrance of the virus within the individual’s body. The knitting of N95 masks is done in such a manner that the pores that permit air transmission are smaller than the diameter of the virus. This easily restricts the virus to enter the recipient’s body.
Implications for public health recommendations
Some implications that needs to be done for proposing suitable recommendations to fight the covid-19 challenges are such as governing the public with introduction of new health and legislative guidelines. The lockdown period that was declared in almost every part of the globe during the initial stage of the pandemic spread has also introduced several other difficulties for the common or general public. Primary healthcare services were implemented within every smaller or remote region that too with the presence of several medical and administrative staffs. Moreover the pandemic had also made put some restrictions over the movement and social distancing has been issued for reducing the rate of community spreading that has been extremely rapid within the past few months. Introducing masks and making them available for all the public and working class is also a very challenging task. Hence it can be said that the government is mainly responsible for the process of making every individual avail the personal protective masks (Barredo, 2020). The public agencies should take special initiatives to implement the following guidelines within rural and indigenous communities. The community spreading can be minimized within these groups with the help of special health care and advocacy programs. Periodic checking of affected and susceptible people shall be carried out with special care units along with application of appropriate clinical diagnosis methods. Other than that people found without the use of masks in public places shall be subjected towards legal remedies and other legislative fines.
Gaps in the evidence where appropriate and opportunities for further research
The method of survey analysis regarding the collection of sample data seemed to be a bit confusing and co-relational. The consequences for wearing a mask were dependent on several external and internal factors of the community. The use of masks for small children and individuals with various respiratory and breathing problems shall be affected. Spread of the virus can also be caused due to contaminated mask surfaces after prolonged exposure to the external environment. Even the people with various types of allergies and other infectious problems are also not able to use the face masks according to the COVID-19 precaution guidelines. Hence some alternative protective measures shall be proposed for these groups of individuals needs to be protected with the help of alternative medical approaches such as periodic sanitization, using cotton material masks and making use of other softcore materials for making the protective masks. Infection hazards shall be treated with alternative medical treatment suggestions. Maintaining a fair social distance from places that are highly expected to be contaminated with virus shall also work for these people. Overall they need to maintain a fair social distancing norm to prevent the spread of the disease. These sorts of implications shall also be addressed in the future for fighting preventing the spread of the deadly virus.
The policy of wearing protective masks during this pandemic season has been set as a universal guideline for preventing community spreading. The various researches based clinical evidence and guidelines of WHO clearly speak for the use of masks to avoid contamination in public place. Various types of clinical assumptions were considered and clearly verified with historical scientific research in medical science that surgical protective masks can reduce the rate of contamination by a huge extent. Thus it can be said that the policy of wearing protective masks within adults especially is an effective and useful policy for preventing COVID-19 spread along the community.
Barredo, L. (2020). Outcomes from Implications of COVID-19 for Public Health and the SDGs. https://www.unsdsn.org/. Retrieved 19 October 2020, from https://www.unsdsn.org/outcomes-from-implications-of-covid-19-for-public-health-and-the-sdgs.
Cdc.gov. (2020). Coronavirus Disease 2019. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved 19 October 2020, from https://www.cdc.gov/media/releases/2020/p0714-americans-to-wear-masks.html.
de Groot, M., van der Wouden, J., van Hell, E., & Nieweg, M. (2013). Evidence-based practice for individuals or groups: let’s make a difference. Perspectives On Medical Education, 2(4), 216-221. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40037-013-0071-2
Heymann, D., & Shindo, N. (2020). COVID-19: what is next for public health?. The Lancet, 395(10224), 542-545. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0140-6736(20)30374-3
Li, T., Liu, Y., Li, M., Qian, X., & Dai, S. (2020). Mask or no mask for COVID-19: A public health and market study. PLOS ONE, 15(8), e0237691. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0237691
Wang, J., Pan, L., Tang, S., Ji, J., & Shi, X. (2020). Mask use during COVID-19: A risk adjusted strategy. Environmental Pollution, 266, 115099. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2020.115099
WHO. (2020). Advice on the use of masks in the context of COVID-19: interim guidance, 5 June 2020. Apps.who.int. Retrieved 19 October 2020, from https://apps.who.int/iris/handle/10665/332293.
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