1. The organization that is established to increase the awareness of the society regarding the status and treatment require by Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australian is known as National Aboriginal and Islanders Day Observance Committee. The NAIDOC celebrate week to improve understanding regarding the history and cultural belief of the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander population. The increased inequality faced by the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australian due to decrease understanding of their different cultural belief and practise of the individual. There is a need to increase understanding toward rich cultural of the Indigenous individual that need to be respectful and considerate. They decrease accessibility toward different aspect increase their risk to encounter different disease that increase the need for the health check. The rates of non-communicable disease are very higher in Indigenous individual due to decrease resources and rational living value (Li, 2017).
2. One of the most common non-communicable disorders is diabetes mellitus that is encountered by the major population worldwide and the greatest prevalence is considered among the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Island population that directly increase the mortality rate. Many factors increased the prevalence of the diabetes mellitus in Indigenous Mellitus that include older age, female, residence in a remote area and decrease education. There is an urgent need to provide accurate intervention to the Indigenous population to reduce the prevalence of diabetes that will directly decrease the mortality rate (Keel et al., 2017). There is an increased rate of diabetes in young Indigenous individual and about more than 10% of young Indigenous individual encounter diabetes due to lack of understanding. This increased prevalence is an alarm to be aware and provide an accurate diagnosis with accurate treatment to reduce the suffering and mortality rate (Titmuss et al., 2019).
3. The first question from the patient is about his/her education and employment that help to understand the economic stability of the individual. The economic instability that is one of the important social factors is one of the important factors that can directly lead to increased risk for diabetes (Hill et al., 2017). The second question will be about the cultural background of the individual as a sometimes traditional cultural living practise can increase the risk of diabetes. The individual with different cultures have different belief and practise for living that sometimes increase the risk for certain disease thus it should be considered during diagnosis s (Caballero, 2018). Lifestyle is the third aspects that will be included in the question top understand the effect of lifestyle over increase risk for diabetes. The poor lifestyle directly increases the risk for the increasing prevalence of diabetes in the individual (Kolb & Martin, 2017).
4. One of the organizations that can help to support the Indigenous health by utilizing cultural safe practice for providing resources includes the National Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Organisation (2016). The organization aims to provide the health care services for the Indigenous population which help to improve the health status. National Diabetes Services Scheme (2018) is another organization that can assist the individual encountered diabetes to reduce the complication. The organizations have two major aim which includes improving self-managing understanding and proving accurate resources services to help the individual in need. The service provision for type 2 diabetes should also improve the self-management capability of the individual to decrease dependency and improve lifestyle. The service provision should include with proper pharmacological intervention to reduce the complication of the individual combine with non-pharmacological lifestyle combine with educational intervention to improve self-efficacy to deal with minute diabetes relate issues (Zarora et al., 2020).
5. The diabetes program should address all the different need of the patient and different aspects are needed to be addressed. One of the needs is of the dietician that help to manage the diet of the patient that is required to balance the nutrition intake. Physical activity is also one of the important aspects that help to manage the normal blood glucose level by improving metabolism this increase the need of personnel trannie that can help the patient to follow the exercise routine (Jardim et al., 2018). Pharmacist should be included in the care that helps to improve the understating of the patient regarding the importance of medicine and an accurate schedule. Patient increased stress also one of the important concern that can be addressed by the therapist as they can help to provide the stress0redcuing intervention to improve mental wellbeing (Tan et al., 2019).
6. The normal blood glucose level is 4.0-5.4mmol/l on fasting and 7.8mmol/l after eating (Razzak et al., 2018).
7. Nutritional balance is one of the important factors that should be considered by the diabetic patient to maintain better nutritional intake. The healthy food options that can be included in the diet which will help to provide healthly and a balanced diet. The first aspect that can be included in the diet is vegetable that helps to increase the metabolism and support the medication. The second food item that can be included in the diet is fruits that are good sources of the nutrient. The third aspect includes wholegrain and legume in the diet to compensate for the nutrient by maintaining the low carbohydrate diet. The dairy products should also be included in the diet as they are also one of the important factors that reduce complication associated with diabetes. This dietary component will help to improve the nutritional balance of the individual that promote a healthy lifestyle (Forouhi et al. 2018).
8. Nursing and Midwifery board (2017) state the code of conduct for nurses and these are required to be followed during patient care. The third principle state that nurses should provide the cultural safe care that directly improve quality of care and patient health care experience. The holistic care approach should be utilized to address the patient requirement by utilizing the cultural competent skill. The patient and family should have incorporated in the care and decision making to improve the care process and reduce recovery time.
Forouhi, N. G., Misra, A., Mohan, V., Taylor, R. & Yancy W. (2018). Dietary and nutritional approaches to the prevention and management of type 2 diabetes. BMJ, 361, 1-9.
Hill, K., Ward, P., Grace, B. S., & Gleadle, J. (2017). Social disparities in the prevalence of diabetes in Australia and the development of end-stage renal disease due to diabetes for
Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders in Australia and Maori and Pacific Islanders in New Zealand. BMC public health, 17(802), 1-8. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-017-4807-5
Jardim, T. V., Inuzuka, S., Galvão, L. (2018). Multidisciplinary treatment of patients with diabetes and hypertension: the experience of a Brazilian centre. Diabetes and metabolic syndrome 10, 3 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1186/s13098-017-0305-2
Keel, S., Foreman, J., Xie, J., van Wijngaarden, P., Taylor, H. R., & Dirani, M. (2017). The prevalence of self-reported diabetes in the Australian national eye health survey. PloS one, 12(1), 1-10. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0169211
Kolb, H., & Martin, S. (2017). Environmental/lifestyle factors in the pathogenesis and prevention of type 2 diabetes. BMC medicine, 15(131), 1-11. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12916-017-0901-x
Li, J. L. (2017). Cultural barriers lead to inequitable healthcare access for aboriginal Australians and Torres Strait Islanders. Chinese Nursing Research, 4, 207-210
National Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Organisation. (2016). About NACCHO. Retrieved from: https://www.naccho.org.au/about/
National Diabetes Services Scheme. (2018). About the NDSS. Retrieved from: https://www.ndss.com.au/about-the-ndss/
Nursing and Midwifery board. (2017). Professional Standards. Retrieved from: https://www.nursingmidwiferyboard.gov.au/Codes-Guidelines-Statements/Professional-standards.aspx
Razzak, R. A., Alshaiji, A. F., Qareeballa, A. A., Mohamed, M. W., Bagust, J., & Docherty, S. (2018). High-normal blood glucose levels may be associated with decreased spatial perception in young healthy adults. PloS one, 13(6), 1-12. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0199051
Tan, E., Khoo, J., Gani, L.U. (2019). Effect of multidisciplinary intensive targeted care in improving diabetes mellitus outcomes: a randomized controlled pilot study – the integrated diabetes education, awareness and lifestyle modification in Singapore (ideals) program. Trials, 20(549), 1-10. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13063-019-3601-3
Titmuss, A., Davis, E. A., Brown, A. & Maple‐Brown, L. J. (2019). Emerging diabetes and metabolic conditions among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander young people. Medical
Journal of Australia, 210(3), 111-113. Caballero, A. E. (2018). The "A to Z" of managing type 2 diabetes in culturally diverse populations. Frontiers in endocrinology, 9(479). 1-15. https://doi.org/10.3389/fendo.2018.00479
Zarora, R., Jani, R., MacMillan, F., Pham, A., Dench, A. & Simmons. D. (2020). Challenges to introducing integrated diabetes care to an inner-regional area in south-western Sydney, Australia. International Journal of Integrated Care, 20(2), 1-12. DOI: http://doi.org/10.5334/ijic.4692
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