Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health

Q1- NAIDOC stands for National Aboriginal and Islander Day of Celebration (Australia) (Arrow, 2016). It is crucial for focusing upon the Aboriginal health in terms of history, current schemes and the gaps and limitations in facilitating services in these communities. It is also helpful in evaluating the overall health burden in these communities so that the risk of chronic conditions can be minimized. It is also vital for overall improvement in the quality of life and healthcare services provided to these communities. It also ensures equal and constant participation of regimens from the government side, to have a detailed perspective in the deteriorating health conditions in these community dwellings. This will help draft necessary interventions to enhance the lifestyle pattern and improve the overall quality of life.

Q2- Diabetes as a chronic condition can add to several other risk factors, that can develop in the patient. If there is no regulation and monitoring of the blood glucose levels are maintained, it can lead to other health-related issues. Apart from affecting the blood glucose levels, the condition of diabetes has many other associated complications, such as diabetic neuropathy, nephropathy and so on (Hill, 2017). Controlling this condition, by keeping it as the main focus of consideration can help prevent many systemic complications in the patient given in the case study. It is also imperative form the point of analysing its severity in terms of the limitations of the patient and the lesser number of resources available to manage the condition. Due to limited tackling measures available, there is a possibility of increased risk to the patient, post-discharge from the healthcare facility. So, it is important to help the patient in his community settings.

Q3- The patient race and ethnicity are important to be identified. These are certain population sects in which there is a higher chance of development of diabetes in comparison to other groups. The social surroundings of the person are important from evaluating the patient’s occupational hazards as well as the community settings he resides in. The community setting should be examined for the presence of at least a primary care setting, that can provide the patient with the treatment care in case of emergency. It is also crucial from the aspect of providing early detection and intervention for the patient. Social determinants will also help evaluate the living conditions of the patient and the impact of the same they can have on a patient’s health status (Seear, 2019). The cultural aspect is crucial for inspecting the myths and disbeliefs associated with the individual’s cultural view for his medical condition. These myths and disbeliefs can be a major hindrance in ensuring smooth facilitation of healthcare services to the patient as well as educating the patient about his condition.

Q4- Diabetes WA and Australian indigenous wellness programs can help assist indigenous clients suffering from diabetes. Australian Indigenous wellness programs, work at various community levels by identifying and examining the target population as well as by providing intervention strategies in those settings. They work with the local community workers in identifying the challenges of the particular communities and working following the same. Diabetes WA, on the other hand, provides guidance and counselling on the community basis, by providing the patients with the details of the condition (Diabetes WA, 2020). They also help the people with alternatives to food habits, alcohol deaddiction, physical exercise routine and so on, required to manage diabetes and preventing the chronic manifestation of the same.

Q5- Dieticians can be an integral part of the process. They can help the patient, by prescribing the diet that is well balanced and is good for maintaining blood sugar levels. Dietary control can be a crucial part of the prevention of the condition (Alotaibi, 2018). Physical therapists can also help the patient, by engaging them in an exercise routine. This can help reduce cardiovascular risks and the risk associated with other complications as well (Munshi, 2016). The role of liaison officers is also vital in the management of the condition. These officers can work in close coordination with the patient and the healthcare providers to ensure constant facilitation of the medical services to the patient, as required by him to manage his chronic condition (Grant, 2018). The nurses can work with these healthcare professionals, through a multidisciplinary team approach, to provide the patient with the holistic care support required by him.

Q6- Normal blood glucose level in adults is considered to be less than 100mg/dl, measured post at least eight hours of fasting (Anekwe, 2018).

Q7- The diet should be low in glycemic index. However, a proper balance of fats and carbohydrates should be maintained at all times. The diet can be inclusive of high fibre carbohydrates (Jones, 2016). These products that might comprise of it can be wholegrain bread and cereal. The person can also be advised to include a high intake of fruits and vegetables including beans and lentils. The fibrous content in the diet will be helpful in the prevention of digestive complications associated with diabetes. This type of dietary intake will also improve the digestion process and will help in maintaining low body weight. Thus, marginally reducing several obesity-related complications.

Q8- The main point of consideration is increasing the availability of the primary healthcare services in the indigenous population. Due to the lack of primary care facilities, there is a gap of management interventions that can be executed at the early stages of the disease manifestation. The strategies should also be based on working in close coordination with the community workers, to get a better insight into the prevailing conditions and the healthcare statistics at the community level (Khanassov, 2016). Patient education interventions should also be executed at a larger scale to enlighten the patients about the myths and disbelief about the disease. This will help reduce the fear about the diseased condition from the patient’s mind and more people will enrol in health programs (Grant, 2018). This is crucial for providing continuous and smooth facilitation of healthcare solutions at the community level.

References for Community Controlled Health Services

Alotaibi, A., Gholizadeh, L., Al‐Ganmi, A. H. A., & Perry, L. (2018). Factors influencing nurses’ knowledge acquisition of diabetes care and its management: A qualitative study. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 27(23-24), 4340-4352.

Anekwe, T. D., & Rahkovsky, I. (2018). The association between food prices and the blood glucose level of US adults with type 2 diabetes. American Journal of Public Health, 108(6), 475-482.

Arrow, P. (2016). Service use and perceived need among an Aboriginal population in Western Australia. Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved, 27(1), 90-100. Diabetes WA. 2020. Resources. Retrieved from https://www.diabeteswa.com.au/manage-your-diabetes/resources/aboriginal-health-resources/

Grant, R., & Draper, N. (2018). The importance of Indigenous Health Liaison Officers and family meetings to improve cardiovascular outcomes in Indigenous Australians. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health, 42(5), 499-500.

Grant, R., & Draper, N. (2018). The importance of Indigenous Health Liaison Officers and family meetings to improve cardiovascular outcomes in Indigenous Australians. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health, 42(5), 499-500.

Hill, K., Ward, P., Grace, B. S., & Gleadle, J. (2017). Social disparities in the prevalence of diabetes in Australia and in the development of end stage renal disease due to diabetes for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders in Australia and Maori and Pacific Islanders in New Zealand. BMC public Health, 17(1), 802.

Jones, M., Barclay, A. W., Brand-Miller, J. C., & Louie, J. C. Y. (2016). Dietary glycaemic index and glycaemic load among Australian children and adolescents: results from the 2011–2012 Australian Health Survey. British Journal of Nutrition, 116(1), 178-187.

Khanassov, V., Pluye, P., Descoteaux, S., Haggerty, J. L., Russell, G., Gunn, J., & Levesque, J. F. (2016). Organizational interventions improving access to community-based primary health care for vulnerable populations: a scoping review. International Journal for Equity in Health, 15(1), 168.

Munshi, M. N., Florez, H., Huang, E. S., Kalyani, R. R., Mupanomunda, M., Pandya, N., ... & Haas, L. B. (2016). Management of diabetes in long-term care and skilled nursing facilities: a position statement of the American Diabetes Association. Diabetes Care, 39(2), 308-318.

Seear, K. H., Atkinson, D. N., Lelievre, M. P., Henderson-Yates, L. M., & Marley, J. V. (2019). Piloting a culturally appropriate, localised diabetes prevention program for young Aboriginal people in a remote town. Australian Journal of Primary Health, 25(5), 495-500.

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